Such is the history of the introduction of k into our language. But this is the true original Saxon idiom—"Nan man ne dorste slean otherne man, neesde he næfre swa mocel yfel gedon with thone otherne. The doctrin is as mischievous in its consequences, as the reasons on which it is founded are false. To these habits we are indebted for all the regularity which is found in our own language or in any other. Height is an innovation comparatively modern; and drought is the Belgic dialect of the Teutonic; but neither of these words existed in the Saxon, the parent of our language. Since I have explored the more remote sources of our language, so many mistakes in our present systems of grammar have been detected, that I have declined to alienate the copy right of my own grammar, and shall not consent to a republication of it, until revised and amended.—The grammars of our language, now taught in our seminaries of learning, are rapidly banishing from books, some of its best established and most legitimate idioms. Then in 1807 he began working on an even more comprehensive edition, and in 1828 this was publihed as An American Dictionary of the English Language. Lesser, says Johnson, is a barbarous corruption of less, formed by the vulgar from the habit of terminating comparatives in er. A Compendious Anglo Saxon And English Dictionary A Compendious Anglo Saxon And English Dictionary by Joseph Bosworth. And the practice is, I believe, peculiar to the English. Uniformity is a prime excellence in the rules of language, and surely no person will contend for the propriety of musickal, publickation and republickan. 1806. Download Webster s 1828 American Dictionary of the English Language Books now!Available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Here alleviate is used for relieve; or the words my task ought to have been used insted of me. In some words we observe most singular corruptions. But the instances in which Johnson has wholly mistaken the sense of words, are far less numerous than those in which he has failed to explain the appropriate senses of words apparently synonymous. By immemorial usage, the English nation had established the Latin orthography of words of this class, as scene, from skene; scepter, from skeptron; sciamachy, from skiamachia; in which, contrary to the original sounds of the k and the c, sc had been pronounced as s. To change one word of this class, without the others, was to innovate without reason, or the prospect of utility; to deform our orthography with anomaly and embarrass the student with needless difficulties. Hence we observe as great a difference between the orthography in the laws of Romulus, Servius Tullius and the Decemvirs, and that of Cicero and Livy, as between the orthography of Chaucer and that of Addison. The opposers of a reform, on the other hand, contend that no alterations should be made in orthography, as they would not only occasion inconvenience, but tend to render old books useless, and obscure etymology. Title [Title page: A Compendious Dictionary for the English Language, by Noah Webster, 1806] Created / Published 1806. Hence, till after the conquest, c was used to express the power of k, as in the Latin language; and insted of not terminating any English word, as Johnson alleges, it terminated every word, where the power of k occurred; as in boc, book; folc, folk; wic, wick; ric, rick. to the number found in the BEST ENGLISH COMPENDS; The ORTHOGRAPHY is, in some instances, corrected; The PRONUNCIATION marked by an Accent or other suitable Direction; And the DEFINITIONS of many Words amended and improved. —By Noah Webster, Esq. More formidable objections than these may be made to our present grammars; but the limits of this preface will not permit a full discussion of this subject which is reserved for another work. The Romans gave to all foreign words, their own letters, terminations and inflections; and a similar practice obtains among the modern nations on the Continent of Europe. [B4W.Book] Free Download 3691 Healthy Eating System: Simple Recipes that took me from Out of Shape to Ironman (Eat 3691) (Volume 1) By Molli & Tony Rathstone "The power of earth, and scepter'd sons of jove. By submitting, you agree to receive donor-related emails from the Internet Archive. Walker succeeded, condemned one half of Sheridan's court pronunciation, and for a short period, enjoyed a tide of popularity. Doubt, is the French doute, with a b inserted out of complasance to its Latin original dubito. Thus according to Johnson's definition, an administratix is a woman "who administers in consequence of a will"; and obvious as the error is, we find it copied into Sheridan, Walker, Jones, &c. Misnomer, says Johnson, is "an indictment or any other act vacated by a wrong name"; an incorrect definition, copied into Sheridan, Walker, Perry, Entick, Jones, Ash, &c. Obligee Johnson defines to be "one bound by a legal and written contract"—the true definition of obligor; and this obvious blunder is transcribed into Sheridan, Walker, Entick, Perry, Ash and Jones. Its disjunctive use is modern; but its original sense is still in use and perfectly proper. See more. It is received also into the Latin dictionaries of Ainsworth and Entick; into the Dutch dictionary of Willcocks, the German of Fahrenkruger, by N. Bailey; the French of Boyer and the Italian of Montucci. Lond. Get Book. The same reason would authorize skience for science; skiolist from sciolus, and skintillation from scintillatio; nay, civil must be written and pronounced kivil; celebrate, kelebrate, and circle, kircle; for in all words, c in Latin had the sound of k. Such are the mischiefs of innovation! by Gibson, page 185, 186. Other articles where Compendious Dictionary of the English Language is discussed: Noah Webster: In 1806 Webster published his Compendious Dictionary of the English Language. A similar inconsistency prevails in the pronunciation of the words of Greek original, beginning with arch, in which ch, receive their English sound before a consonant, as in archbishop, and the sound of k before a vowel, as in a architect. The truth is, as is a relative pronoun, equivalent to who, which or that; as may be seen in the German, the elder sister of the English. compendious definition: 1. short but complete, including everything that is important: 2. large and including many…. The practice, in his time, of closing all words with k after c, on which he founded his observation, was a Norman innovation. The unavoidable consequence then of fixing the orthography of a living language, is to destroy the the use of the alphabet. But arch, being established in its English pronunciation, becomes the root from which every word of this class is considered as derived, and will naturally control the pronunciation of the whole. It is proper to confine my observations, in this place, to the more immediate objects of this publication. In pursuance of this false rule, he condemns such passages as this. "There was great slaughter on either hand." To which are added for the benefit of the merchant, the student and the traveller, I.—Tables of the moneys of most of the commercial nations in the world, with the value expressed in sterling and cents. Such are determine, examine, doctrine, discipline, medicine, and others with a different terminating syllable. To satisfy my readers that I do not exagerate the difficulties of this subject and the contradictions between the most respectable standard authors, I will here exhibit a few examples, in which the pronunciation of each author is given, not in his own letters and figures, for these might not be understood by persons unacquainted with his works; but in letters of known powers, and which the most ordinary reader cannot mistake. In other words, the French influence introduced a final e, in words of Saxon original, to which the Saxons affixed no vowel. Johnson often committed errors, but seldom gave his sanction to innovations, unauthorized by any good principle. of California, 1. ", In conformity to the acts of the Congress of the United States entitled "An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books, to authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned.". The Seventy translate the Hebrew by spermatizon, seeded, or seeding, and this sense is rendered certain by the corresponding term used to denote the state of the barley, abib, eared or being in the ear. III.—The DIVISIONS of TIME among the Jews, Greeks and Romans, with a Table exhibiting the Roman manner of dating. compendious meaning: 1. short but complete, including everything that is important: 2. large and including many…. Johnson's mistake in the definition of clout is the more remarkable, as it proves him to have misinterpreted his favorite author, Shakespear, as well as Milton. Boll, is the Saxon bolla, was the ancient correct orthography of bowl, and probably is derived from the Hebrew gebōl, the word used in this passage. So far is Lowth's rule from the truth, that either, in our primitive writers, was rarely or never used in a disjunctive sense. See also page 61, 63, 79, 219. 1773. and Sax. Opaque is now written opake, by most authors; and it is presumed that the few outlaws which remain, will soon be subjected to the laws of English orthography. The utility and expedience of such reform have been controverted, and both side of the question have been maintained with no inconsiderable zeal. This error of Johnson, however obvious, has been transcribed by most or all later compilers of English dictionaries. An official List of the Post-Offices in the United States, with the states and counties in which they are respectively situated, and the distance of each from the seat of government.—5. "The neuter pronoun it, says Murray, on the authority of Campbell, is sometimes omitted and understood—thus we say, "as appears" "as follows," for, "as it appears," "as it follows." Had this eminent critic examined ancient authorities with more care, he would have found the reverse of his affirmation to be the truth. These errors are corrected by Mason; but others have escaped his notice. There are no reviews yet. That is both. Title: A compendious dictionary of the English language. The Hebrew And English Lexicon Improved To Which Is Added A Compendious Grammar Of The Hebrew Language. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The Saxons had probably no knowledge of letters, till they settled in England; and in that country, no letters were known, but those of the Roman alphabet, a knowledge of which had been left there by the Romans. Pdf The New Pocket Dictionary Of The French And English Languages by Thomas Nugent download in pdf or epub online. "If I make my hands never so clean"—"Charm he never so wisely"—"Ask me never so much dowry and gift"—are legitimate English phrases, which our best writers have used; which are preserved in popular practice, and which the grammarian has no right to proscribe—How would the elegant Addison, that pre-eminent writer of unadulterated English, smile, were he to rise from the grave, and see this genuine idiom in the Spectator, stigmatized, by a hypercritical Editor, as bad grammar, and printed in Italics! Compendious definition, of or like a compendium; containing the substance of a subject, often an exclusive subject, in a brief form; concise: a compendious history of the world. Learn about Author Central. In 1806 Webster published A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, the first truly American dictionary. But that such is the fact, will appear certain to any man who will read a few pages in a Saxon author. "Having the imperial scepter. Let the differences of pronunciation be noted also in the following words. The clouted brogues and clouted shoon of of those poets were shoes with soles studded with nails; such shoes as our country people have worn within my memory, and I am told, still wear, in some parts of America. Learn more. . See Sax. In 1798 he removed to New Haven. Alfred's Orosius, Ch. "The princes of Israel, being twelve men, each one was for the house of his fathers."—Numb. Ex. Launch from lance, is a corruption introduced at a very early period, with daunce for dance, auncient for ancient, maister for master, plaister for plaster, and numerous similar corruptions which mark the barbarism which succeeded the Norman conquest. In the phrases mentioned, as appears, as is the nominative to the verb—being only another word for which—which appears—which follows— and by inserting it, "which it follows," we convert the phrases into a palpable nonsense. In the volumes I have read, it does not occur in that character, in a single instance. Ch. Though is also a vitious orthography; tho being much nearer to the original word. 1. This unquestionably is a fair inference from the facts. The excellence of Johnson's work consits chiefly in presenting to the reader the various different significations of words distinctly arranged and exemplified. Thus according to his scheme, ability, vanity are to be pronounced abileetee, vaneetee; which, as Jones has justly observed, is no "trivial error." Fortunately, most modern writers have rejected the k from words in which it is useless; and it is desirable that dictionaries should add their authority to the practice. A compendious dictionary of the English language. Thus the Saxon cepan, to keep; liccian, to lick; licean, to like; locian, to look, were converted into the present English words; and in many words, k usurped the place of c without a like necessity, as book from boc. OF THE. For this reason, rather than from a rigid adherence to the originals, we ought to write defense, pretense, offense, recompense, &c. with s insted of c; for we always use that letter in the derivatives, defensive, offensive, pretension, recompensing. The friends of refinement have entertained sanguine expectations, that men of letters might agree upon some standard by which pronunciation might be regulated, and reduced to a good degree of uniformity. Redoubt, is the French redoute, corrupted perhaps by a supposed alliance of the word with doubt, with which it has not the least connection. Johnson remarks that c, having no determinate sound, according to English orthography never ends a word. 1, p, 240, 241, 213, as it is in many old authors. No great changes should ever be made at once, nor should any change be made which violates established principles, creates great inconvenience, or obliterates the radicals of the language. Hoole's Tasso, 22, 602. "A very great army, either land army, and ship-army from Sweden." Hist. 8. p. 153. Do not such pointed differences, among authors of distinction, prove that there is no uniformity of pronunciation among the higher ranks of society in Great Britain; and consequently, that no standard can be found in their practice? But c at the end of words retains its place and power, particularly in all words formed from Greek and Latin adjectives in kos and cus, and consequently in all words not from the same originals, but formed according to that analogy; as music, public, republic, nitric, camphoric, majestic. "He is mistaken, tho never so wise," Johnson thinks to be justly accused of solicism. At the same time, to preserve a trace of their originals, the o of the Latin honor, as well as the u of the French honeur was retained in the terminating syllable. The introduction of e into vineyard is a modern corruption; the word not being compounded of vine and yard, but of the primitive [win] vin and yard, the correct pronunciation of which we retain. That a complete standard, to which all the polite and learned of a nation will conform, is, in its own nature, impracticable, may be satisfactorily proved from the structure of the human mind; from the various modes in which different men view the same subject; the different effect of the same degrees of evidence on different minds; the different impressions made by education, which become the ground-work of uncontrollable prejudices; and the extreme reluctance which men feel in relinquishing their peculiar notions, and yielding to the opinions of others. In which five thousand words are added to the number found in the best English compends; the orthography is, in some instances, corrected; the pronunciation marked by an accent or other suitable direction; and the definitions of many words amended and improved. See search results for this author. I find the Normans changed the a into e, and the slight evanescent sound of this vowel being finally omitted in pronunciation, the vowel was at last retrenched. "—Newton chron. Men therefore who use this pronunciation, tho chargeable with "a zeal for analogy," as Johnson observes of Milton, and tho they may not imitate Garrick as Walker does, will still have the honor to be correct, and to preserve the purity of the original orthography. Download and Read online Thesaurus Lingu Latin Compendiarus Or A Compendious Dictionary Of The Latin Tongue By Mr Robert Ainsworth ebooks in PDF, epub, Tuebl Mobi, Kindle Book. A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. "Mycell wæl thær on ægthere hand gefeoll." In this as in almost every other instance of anomaly, the pronunciation has been preserved correct by custom, while the orthography has been corrupted by authors. Had these authors ever read a Saxon book with attention, they must have perceived their error. The second period started in the 19th century and appears to coincide with the development of phonetics as a science. This remark is a gross and mischievous error, arising from the author's not understanding the word as, which has most absurdly been classed with conjunctions. These examples are sufficient to demonstrate the importance of investigating the original of the English Language; and how much mischief has been done by men who have compiled elementary books, without qualifying themselves by such previous investigation.[2]. A book entitled Webster s 1828 American Dictionary of the English Language written by Noah Webster, published by Waking Lion Press which was released on 30 July 2015. It still holds a primary, and not a subordinate place. It is a thing of no consequence whether we pronounce vowels and consonants as the Greeks and Romans pronounced them—but it is of immense practical importance, that when we have analogies established in our own language, we should, on no account, violate them by introducing unnecessary exceptions. On this subject, as on most others which divide the opinions of men, parties seem to have erred by running into extremes. FOR HUDSON & GOODWIN, BOOK-SELLERS, HARTFORD, AND INCREASE COOKE & CO. BE it remembered, That on the fifteenth day of January in the thirtieth year of the Independence of the United States of America, NOAH WEBSTER, Esq. Every man of common reading knows that a living language must necessarily suffer gradual changes in its current words, in the significations of many words, and in pronunciation. In 1806 Webster published his Compendious Dictionary of the English Language. (1) In the year 1786, Dr. Franklin proposed to me to prosecute his scheme of a Reformed Alphabet, and offered me his types for the purpose. The use of k at the end of words after c, deserves notice, as it affords a remarkable proof of the corruption of language by means of heedless writers. Under the Norman princes, when every effort of royal authority was exerted to crush the Saxons and obliterate their language, the Norman French was the only language of the English courts and legal proceedings, and the Latin words which, at that period, were introduced into use in England, came clothed with the French livery. IV.—An official list of the post-offices in the United States, with the states and counties in which they are respectively situated and the distance of each from the seat of Government. On this general principle have all learned and civilized nations proceeded in refining their languages and preserving the use of alphabetical writing. The true resolution of the phrase is, let him have done so much evil to him as never before—or as never was done before —a very forcible manner of expressing the idea. What is still stranger, this doctrin is pertinaciously maintained by the men who make pretenses to exquisit taste and refinement in polite literature. A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language Kindle Edition by Noah Webster (Author) › Visit Amazon's Noah Webster Page. The Romans used c as an equivalent for the Greek k, as appears by the translation of Greek into Latin, and of Latin into Greek, made while both were living languages. The orthography of our language is extremely irregular; and many fruitless attempts have been made to reform it. Ch. This construction is of the highest antiquity; the Greek, Latin and Saxon languages all having a common origin, the idiom in question is to be considered as primitive; no preposition, in these cases, having been ever used and none being understood.
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