La pomme de terre ou patate (langage familier, canadianisme et belgicisme), est un tubercule comestible produit par l’espèce Solanum tuberosum, appartenant à la famille des solanacées.Le terme désigne également la plante elle-même, plante herbacée, vivace par ses tubercules mais toujours cultivée comme une culture annuelle. Some of the more notable dishes include boiled potato as a base for several dishes or with ají-based sauces like in Papa a la Huancaína or ocopa, diced potato for its use in soups like in cau cau, or in Carapulca with dried potato (papa seca). A raw yellow dent corn [7] However, lack of genetic diversity, due to the very limited number of varieties initially introduced, left the crop vulnerable to disease. [28] Nonetheless, genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species affirms that all potato subspecies derive from a single origin in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme Northwestern Bolivia (from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex). [3] The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated by indigenous peoples of the Americas independently in multiple locations,[4] but later genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species traced a single origin for potatoes. [36], The European Cultivated Potato Database (ECPD) is an online collaborative database of potato variety descriptions that is updated and maintained by the Scottish Agricultural Science Agency within the framework of the European Cooperative Programme for Crop Genetic Resources Networks (ECP/GR)—which is run by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). The result is then usually run past workers who continue to sort out plant material, stones, and rotten potatoes before the potatoes are continuously delivered to a wagon or truck. Kleinkopf G.E. Pâté aux pommes de terre is a regional potato dish from the central Allier and Limousin regions. As of 2014, potatoes were the world's fourth-largest food crop after maize (corn), wheat, and rice. blemishes or bruises, pointy ends). Puddings made from grated potatoes (kugel, kugelis, and potato babka) are popular items of Ashkenazi, Lithuanian, and Belarusian cuisine. [23] The Andean potato is adapted to the short-day conditions prevalent in the mountainous equatorial and tropical regions where it originated; the Chilean potato, however, native to the Chiloé Archipelago, is adapted to the long-day conditions prevalent in the higher latitude region of southern Chile. During the crop year 2008, many of the certified organic potatoes produced in the United Kingdom and certified by the Soil Association as organic were sprayed with a copper pesticide[75] to control potato blight (Phytophthora infestans). [113], The potato has been an essential crop in the Andes since the pre-Columbian Era. Commercial growers cover them by piling additional soil around the base of the plant as it grows (called "hilling" up, or in British English "earthing up"). The potato is rarely eaten raw because raw potato starch is poorly digested by humans. Boiled whole and served un-peeled with dill, these "new potatoes" are traditionally consumed with Baltic herring. Tubers form in response to decreasing day length, although this tendency has been minimized in commercial varieties.[20]. To be disease free, the areas where seed potatoes are grown are selected with care. Bauernfrühstück (literally farmer's breakfast) is a warm German dish made from fried potatoes, eggs, ham and vegetables. Why Is Important To Know The Difference When growing potatoes, it’s important to determine whether the desired variety is determinate or indeterminate. Different designs use different systems at this point. [43] Amflora potatoes therefore produce starch consisting almost entirely of amylopectin, and are thus more useful for the starch industry. Z raw plantains [45][46] In October 2011 BASF requested cultivation and marketing approval as a feed and food from the EFSA. The potato cyst nematode is a microscopic worm that thrives on the roots, thus causing the potato plants to wilt. Russet Burbank 传统的美国马铃薯,极为适合烘焙和制作炸薯条。 4. Home gardeners often plant a piece of potato with two or three eyes in a hill of mounded soil. Nicola Widely grown Dutch variety, one of the best for boiling, also good in salads 3. After flowering, potato plants produce small green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each containing about 300 seeds. [6] Over 99% of presently cultivated potatoes worldwide descended from varieties that originated in the lowlands of south-central Chile.[9][10]. Other major producers were India, Russia, Ukraine and the United States. The only requirement involves cooking to swell the starch granules. And nowadays the Nicola is still popular in Holland. Potatoes are incredibly nutritious and would be a welcome alternative for today's busy lifestyle. In 2012, GMO development in Europe was stopped by BASF. The Royal Spanish Academy says the Spanish word is a hybrid of the Taíno batata ('sweet potato') and the Quechua papa ('potato'). H raw sorghum New varieties grown from seed can be propagated vegetatively by planting tubers, pieces of tubers cut to include at least one or two eyes, or cuttings, a practice used in greenhouses for the production of healthy seed tubers. [13][14] The name originally referred to the sweet potato although the two plants are not closely related. The importance of the potato as a food source and culinary ingredient varies by region and is still changing. A traditional Canary Islands dish is Canarian wrinkly potatoes or papas arrugadas. In Northern India, alu dum and alu paratha are a favourite part of the diet; the first is a spicy curry of boiled potato, the second is a type of stuffed chapati. Van Gogh said he wanted to depict peasants as they really were. Burn centres in India have experimented with the use of the thin outer skin layer to protect burns while healing. 2. Potato crop yields are determined by factors such as the crop breed, seed age and quality, crop management practices and the plant environment. A creamer potato is a variety of potato harvested before it matures to keep it small and tender. Next Up: French Fry Fans, J.R. Simplot Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Potato Genetically Engineered for Low Acrylamide Potential and Reduced Black Spot Bruise. Oblong-oval tubers with lightly netted, yellow skin and intensely yellow, waxy, dense flesh. There are hundreds of mainly local varieties. The historically significant Phytophthora infestans (late blight) remains an ongoing problem in Europe[30][73] and the United States. Insects that commonly transmit potato diseases or damage the plants include the Colorado potato beetle, the potato tuber moth, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), the potato aphid, beet leafhoppers, thrips, and mites. Among American Jews, the practice of eating latkes (fried potato pancakes) is common during the festival of Hanukkah. [63] In a summary of several studies, the glycoalkaloid content was highest in the flowers and sprouts and lowest in the tuber flesh. 2006 Blue Swede (also Blue Congo or Idaho Blue); “potatoes don’t have to be yellow”, 2007 Linda; "Because she has to be saved", 2008 Bamberg potato; "By foodies revered variety", 2009 Adretta; "Significant DDR variety that has survived the fall of the wall", 2010 Sieglinde; “from 1945 to 1970 a star on the potato sky”, 2011 Ora; “Floury DDR variety, perfect for mashed potatoes”, 2012 Bintje; “An 80 year old beauty from Holland”, 2013 Rosa Tannenzapfen, pink potatoes; “Great taste and beautiful color”, 2014 Granola; “Great taste and incredibly versatile”, 2015 Heideniere: "Rediscovered variety with exceptional taste”, Spokesperson of the “potato of the year” group, Based on your current location, we selected the Europe edition of for you, You are currently in the Europe edition of In the early 1970s, the State Ministry of Agriculture in Benue took in another set of varieties including ajax, mirka, spunta, Nicola, desiree, diamant, dan-Cameroon, alpha, cardinal and Baraka. Since exposure to light leads to an undesirable greening of the skins and the development of solanine as a protection from the sun's rays, growers cover surface tubers. [92] As well as affecting potatoes directly, climate change will also affect the distributions and populations of many potato diseases and pests. A secondary center of genetic variability of the potato is Mexico, where important wild species that have been used extensively in modern breeding are found, such as the hexaploid Solanum demissum, as a source of resistance to the devastating late blight disease. Improvements in one or more of these yield determinants, and a closure of the yield gap, can be a major boost to food supply and farmer incomes in the developing world.[90][91]. According to the Soil Association, the total copper that can be applied to organic land is 6 kg/ha/year. Pain typically comes on rapidly, reaching maximal intensity in less than 12 hours. Like all parts of the plant except the tubers, the fruit contain the toxic alkaloid solanine and are therefore unsuitable for consumption. Three thousand of them are found in the Andes alone, mainly in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, and Colombia. Tuber bulking occurs during the fourth phase, when the plant begins investing the majority of its resources in its newly formed tubers. In this respect, potato tuber tissue is similar to, Potatoes have been delivered with personalized messages as a novelty. Poori in south India in particular in Tamil Nadu is almost always taken with smashed potato masal. French-fried potatoes are a typical ingredient in Peruvian stir-fries, including the classic dish lomo saltado. Shortly after the approval in 1973 Dutch potato farmers showed interest in the Nicola and started growing them. Andre Cantelmo : I love the Nicola. [112] High-density potatoes are desirable in the production of dehydrated mashed potatoes, potato crisps and french fries.[112]. Wo se herkommt Die Grummbeer schdammt aus de Ande in Siedameriga. E raw cassava After 30 years, in 2003, the Plant Breeders’ Right for the Nicola ended. [92] Like many crops, potatoes are likely to be affected by changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, temperature and precipitation, as well as interactions between these factors. [76], According to an Environmental Working Group analysis of USDA and FDA pesticide residue tests performed from 2000 through 2008, 84% of the 2,216 tested potato samples contained detectable traces of at least one pesticide. Nicola 广泛栽培的荷兰品种,最适于水煮的品种之一,也适合用来制作色拉。 3. NICOLA: A long to oval-shaped waxy potato with yellow skin and flesh with a buttery flavour. The world dedicated 18.6 million hectares (46 million acres) to potato cultivation in 2010; the world average yield was 17.4 tonnes per hectare (7.8 short tons per acre). A selection criterion is the previous achievements of the variety, such as a particular resistance or a characteristic taste or - as in Nicola - a special production value for farming. [87][88][89], There is a big gap among various countries between high and low yields, even with the same variety of potato. Old US variety from 1861. [68][failed verification], Potato growth can be divided into five phases. ), as well as the food plants eggplant and tomato. Potatoes (mainly Russets) are commonly used in plant research. The short list exists of six varieties and the representatives of the “potato of the year” group selects the “potato of the year”. Like most other pre-20th century acronymic origins, this is false, and there is no evidence that a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet ever existed. In East Asia, particularly Southeast Asia, rice is by far the predominant starch crop, with potatoes a secondary crop, especially in China and Japan. In normal potatoes, analysis has shown solanine levels may be as little as 3.5% of the breeders' maximum, with 7–187 mg/kg being found. Iwwer die Kanarische Insle is die Knoll dann um 1560 rum no Eiroba komm. Eliminating all root-weeds is desirable in potato cultivation. Sebago potatoes are an excellent all-rounder – suitable for mashing, frying, boiling or roasting. During the second, photosynthesis begins as the plant develops leaves and branches above-ground and stolons develop from lower leaf axils on the below-ground stem. 2003 May 7; 51(10): 2964–73, "United States Potato Board -Seed Potatoes", Science & Advice for Scottish Agriculture, "Dutch saltwater potatoes offer hope for world's hungry", "NJF seminar No. [12] Cooking at high temperatures—over 170 °C (338 °F)—partly destroys these compounds. Potatoes need to be grown from what’s called a ‘seed potato,’ which is part of a potato that … [59], Potatoes are often broadly classified as having a high glycemic index (GI) and so are often excluded from the diets of individuals trying to follow a low-GI diet. [24][54], According to conservative estimates, the introduction of the potato was responsible for a quarter of the growth in Old World population and urbanization between 1700 and 1900. A traditional Acadian dish from New Brunswick is known as poutine râpée. [31], Potatoes yield abundantly with little effort, and adapt readily to diverse climates as long as the climate is cool and moist enough for the plants to gather sufficient water from the soil to form the starchy tubers. In the UK, game chips are a traditional accompaniment to roast gamebirds such as pheasant, grouse, partridge and quail. In the third phase the tips of the stolons swell forming new tubers and the shoots continue to grow and flowers typically develop soon after. This is a list of potato varieties or cultivars. [17] The origin of the word spud has erroneously been attributed to an 18th-century activist group dedicated to keeping the potato out of Britain, calling itself The Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet (S.P.U.D.). Cross-breeding has been done repeatedly to transfer resistances to certain pests and diseases from the gene pool of wild species to the gene pool of cultivated potato species. Potatoes do not keep very well in storage and are vulnerable to moulds that feed on the stored tubers and quickly turn them rotten, whereas crops such as grain can be stored for several years with a low risk of rot. Some Englishmen who did not fancy potatoes formed a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet. At more formal dinners, a common practice includes taking small red potatoes, slicing them, and roasting them in an iron skillet. ", "International Year of the Potato: 2008, Asia and Oceania", "People are spending $14 to send message-bearing potatoes", "6 gifts you can anonymously send to your mortal enemies", "New company lets you send messages on potatoes", "Pembrokeshire Early Potato gets protected European status", Online Potato Pedigree Database for cultivated varieties, GMO Safety: Genetic engineering on potatoes, Solanum tuberosum (potato, papas): life cycle, tuber anatomy at GeoChemBio, Potato, in Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, List of top international rankings by country,, Crops originating from indigenous Americans, Articles with dead external links from May 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Quechua-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2018, Articles with failed verification from February 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Potatoes are used to brew alcoholic beverages such as. [55] In the Altiplano, potatoes provided the principal energy source for the Inca civilization, its predecessors, and its Spanish successor. [72] Three successive plowings, with associated harrowing and rolling, are desirable before planting. and N. Olsen. Potato flakes are popular as an instant variety of mashed potatoes, which reconstitute into mashed potatoes by adding water, with butter or oil and salt to taste. Commercial growers plant potatoes as a row crop using seed tubers, young plants or microtubers and may mound the entire row. A dish called masala dosa from South India is very notable all over India. [79] The skin of creamer potatoes is waxy and high in moisture content, and the flesh contains a lower level of starch than other potatoes. [67] These locations are selected for their cold, hard winters that kill pests and summers with long sunshine hours for optimum growth. In a 100-gram (3 1⁄2-ounce) portion, raw potato provides 322 kilojoules (77 kilocalories) of food energy and is a rich source of vitamin B6 and vitamin C (23% and 24% of the Daily Value, respectively), with no other vitamins or minerals in significant amount (see table). In France, the most notable potato dish is the Hachis Parmentier, named after Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, a French pharmacist, nutritionist, and agronomist who, in the late 18th century, was instrumental in the acceptance of the potato as an edible crop in the country. [82] The commercial storage and retrieval of potatoes involves several phases: first drying surface moisture; wound healing at 85% to 95% relative humidity and temperatures below 25 °C (77 °F); a staged cooling phase; a holding phase; and a reconditioning phase, during which the tubers are slowly warmed. The Nicola is regarded as an all-rounder in the kitchen and keeps its nice shape when used as jacket or fried potatoes. The concentration of glycoalkaloids in wild potatoes is sufficient to produce toxic effects in humans. The Scottish Miller 1700–1900. And the Nicola retains the attractive yellow color after cooking. Medium low dry matter, good boiling qualities. Light exposure causes greening from chlorophyll synthesis, giving a visual clue as to which areas of the tuber may have become more toxic. The consistent parenchyma tissue, the clonal nature of the plant and the low metabolic activity provide a very nice "model tissue" for experimentation. Publication date: 一覧 ニコラ (雑誌) (nicola) - 新潮社の女子小中学生向けファッション雑誌。 ニコラ - バニラビーンズの楽曲。 ニコラ - 坂本真綾の楽曲。アルバム『シンガーソングライター』に収録 ニコラ (映画) (英語版) (原題:La Classe de neige) - 1998年のフランス映画。 Sie erhebt dabei keinen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit. For culinary purposes, varieties are often differentiated by their waxiness: floury or mealy baking potatoes have more starch (20–22%) than waxy boiling potatoes (16–18%). The joint at the base of the big toe is affected in about half of cases. (2001), South America: (English and Spanish): Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Eurasia: Armenia, Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan. Mxwl99 05:49, 27 March 2007 (UTC) The following are all commercialized in Europe: Bintje, Cara, Charlotte, Desiree, Estima, Hermes, [110] Similarly, cooked and mashed potatoes or potato flour can be used in the Knödel or dumpling eaten with or added to meat dishes all over central and Eastern Europe, but especially in Bavaria and Luxembourg. Unlike many foods, potatoes can also be easily cooked in a microwave oven and still retain nearly all of their nutritional value, provided they are covered in ventilated plastic wrap to prevent moisture from escaping; this method produces a meal very similar to a steamed potato, while retaining the appearance of a conventionally baked potato. This pottery was a sacred substance, formed in significant shapes and used to represent important themes. Global warming is predicted to have significant effects on global potato production. A group of "propagators", half of them organic farmers, ensures the preservation of the Nicola variety. Enriching and preserving the gene bank collection to make potatoes adaptive to diverse environmental conditions is seen as a pressing issue due to climate change. Genetically modified varieties have met public resistance in the United States and in the European Union. Schäzungsweis waggst se dort schun seit uugefehr 13.000 Johr. Amylose, a long-chain molecule, diffuses from the starch granule when cooked in water, and lends itself to dishes where the potato is mashed. These are often harvested by the home gardener or farmer by "grabbling", i.e. is die Knoll dann um 1560 rum no Eiroba komm. In the winter, roadside sellers in northern China will also sell roasted potatoes. However, it is used in northern China where rice is not easily grown, with a popular dish being 青椒土豆丝 (qīng jiāo tǔ dòu sī), made with green pepper, vinegar and thin slices of potato. [37], Dozens of potato cultivars have been selectively bred specifically for their skin or, more commonly, flesh color, including gold, red, and blue varieties[38] that contain varying amounts of phytochemicals, including carotenoids for gold/yellow or polyphenols for red or blue cultivars. [34] In general, varieties are categorized into a few main groups based on common characteristics, such as russet potatoes (rough brown skin), red potatoes, white potatoes, yellow potatoes (also called Yukon potatoes) and purple potatoes. Wild potato species, originating in modern-day Peru, can be found throughout the Americas, from the United States to southern Chile. [105] [56], In 2018, world production of potatoes was 368 million tonnes, led by China with 27% of the total (table). [108] German fries and various version of Potato salad are part of German cuisine. GM Crop Events developed by J.R. Simplot Co. Modern Farmer: Why Nicola potatoes? In the UK, potatoes form part of the traditional staple, fish and chips. The word has an unknown origin and was originally (c. 1440) used as a term for a short knife or dagger, probably related to the Latin spad- a word root meaning "sword"; compare Spanish espada, English "spade", and spadroon. The GI of potatoes can vary considerably depending on the cultivar or cultivar category (such as "red", russet, "white", or King Edward), growing conditions and storage, preparation methods (by cooking method, whether it is eaten hot or cold, whether it is mashed or cubed or consumed whole), and accompanying foods consumed (especially the addition of various high-fat or high-protein toppings). Cepelinai is Lithuanian national dish. Using DNA, scientists hunt for the roots of the modern potato, "The Potato's Contribution to Population and Urbanization: Evidence from a Historical Experiment", "Potato production in 2018; Region/World/Production Quantity/Crops from pick lists", "Nutrient contents of potato, baked, flesh and skin, without salt per 100 grams", List of what counts towards 5 A DAY portions of fruit and vegetables, J-Agric-Food-Chem. BASF developed the Amflora potato, which was modified to express antisense RNA to inactivate the gene for granule bound starch synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the formation of amylose. The Aloo gosht, Potato and meat curry, is one of the popular dishes in South Asia, especially in Pakistan. Pigs and potatoes were introduced to the islands. 2003. Tracing its origins to Quebec in the 1950s, it has become a widespread and popular dish throughout Canada. 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