An electrician is troubleshooting a faulty light circuit, where the power source and light bulb are far removed from one another: AC voltage source TB1 TB2 TB5 TB4 TB6 TB3 Light As you can see in the diagram, there are several terminal blocks (”TB”) through which electrical … electrical troubleshooting. Successfully troubleshooting a complex piece of equipment gives a technician a tremendous sense of satisfaction. A music recording studio is equipped with three microphones, each of which connect to the “mixer” panel by means of shielded cables: The purpose of the mixer is to function as a multi-channel audio signal amplifier, to control the volume of each sound channel so that a good “mix” is obtained for recording. About the Author: Warren Rhude is president of Simutech Multimedia Inc. an e-learning company that develops computer based training simulations for electrical troubleshooting. This problem gives students a chance to explore the “divide and conquer” strategy of troubleshooting in a context that is very simple and does not require knowledge of electricity. This system has a problem, though. UNIT-VI D.C. Motors : Principle of operation of dc motors, types of DC Motors. Upon disassembling the divider circuit and checking resistance with an ohmmeter, though, both resistors are revealed to be in perfect operating condition. Having an effective troubleshooting plan and following it can help obtain this feeling of satisfaction. I’ll let you determine the answers to this question! Your friend has already done some troubleshooting of his own: after turning off the amplifier and letting the smoke clear, he turned it back on at low volume to find that the left channel is dead, but the right channel is still working. Be sure to discuss this possibility with your students, and the reasoning why the one extension cord would be more likely to be faulted than two separate devices. A “virtual” troubleshooting exercise such as this one is a good way to start students thinking in the right ways to becoming effective troubleshooters. Once students have successfully identified the mechanic’s reasoning, ask them to explain how the prediction of noise rhythm distinguishes which part of the bicycle is making the noise. Scenario #2, outcome #1: problem is not in the microphone. There, the damage is visually apparent: both of the power transistors for the left channel output are burnt beyond recognition. A friend of yours brings you their damaged stereo amplifier, hoping that perhaps you would be able to repair it cheaper than the local electronics repair shop. A mistake common to new students is to consider wild combinations of faults in a broken system before thoroughly considering all the simpler possibilities. Encourage students to analyze the system by dividing it into sections. This troubleshooting strategy is sometimes referred to as the “divide-and-conquer” method, because it divides the system into small sections to optimize troubleshooting time and effort. That isn’t a problem, however, because you know how to troubleshoot systems by swapping interchangeable components. Deciding to apply your ßwap interchangeable components” troubleshooting strategy, you turn off both welders’ power switches, then turn off the disconnect switches at both receptacles and swap the power cables between receptacles: When you turn the disconnect switches on and try to start both welders, you find that neither one turns on now! Troubleshooting a system of any kind requires scientific thinking: sound deductive reasoning from effect to cause, and cause to effect. This situation is very realistic, and underscores the need for careful thinking on the part of the troubleshooter when deciding what specific troubleshooting strategy to apply. I will present four different “swap” scenarios to you, with two different outcomes for each. Also, discuss whether this concludes the diagnostic procedures, or if there is more troubleshooting left to do. Scenario #2, outcome #2: microphone #2 is faulty. Experienced technicians have developed a method for troubleshooting. The course presents€an overview of other common electrical work activities such as preventive maintenance. When actually working on real circuits, students seem more likely to first look for simple causes. As an industrial electrician, you'll encounter many complex electrical circuits and drives that will break down as they age. It doesn’t indicate, for example, what the mechanic’s prediction was when deciding to do a voltage check of the battery with the engine stopped and with the engine running. One commonly accepted algorithm (series of steps) for scientific method is the following: This methodology is also very useful in technical troubleshooting, since troubleshooting is fundamentally a determination of cause for an observed effect. Swap the non-working bulb for one of the other four working bulbs, and see if the problem moves with the bulb. ‘¥b,©Bdc‰Õ8²±DjÙXB5Žl,Y5Žl,&-Ž“ÅV‹ãdc1jqœl,5Žl,z5Žl,:5Žl,²G6I#‹¨Æ‘E«Æ‘-ªÙ×rI ˆ—u-¶êúm ZÙU¯FÙq«FÙu5 DÙñϪF¹Ó´. Unfortunately, in your rush to get to the job site you forgot to bring your test equipment. So if you know two of the three characteristics, your can calculate the third one. Two things I recommend, though: Discuss with your students both probable causes of this problem as well as strategies for locating the problem. What about the electrician’s choice of steps - do you think the voltage measurements taken were performed in the most efficient sequence, or would you recommend a different order to save time? When in doubt, never hesitate to ask a certified mechanic for help. When assisting students with lab projects, what typical problems do you encounter with the circuits they build, and how do these problems typically differ from problems you’ve seen in real-life electronic equipment? Identify the most likely location of the fault in this system, and explain why the ßwap interchangeable components” strategy got you into trouble. This is not good, because without knowing the proper part numbers, your friend cannot order the proper replacement transistors to repair the amplifier. The likely location of the fault is in welder #1. Failure of this pump will result in the loss of a generator currently producing half of the station’s power output. Read Online Hvac Basic Electrical Troubleshooting Guide Hvac Basic Electrical Troubleshooting Guide Thank you unquestionably much for downloading hvac basic electrical troubleshooting guide.Maybe you have knowledge that, people have see numerous period for their favorite books taking into account this hvac basic electrical troubleshooting guide, but end stirring in harmful downloads. All the other channels are working just fine, though. Scenario #4, outcome #2: cable #2 is faulty. Be sure to discuss with your students that the burnt component may very well be a victim of another component failure, and not the cause of the system fault. Is this the only fault, being that it is the only component visibly damaged? Where do you think the problem is in this circuit? always turn off power when working inside a control panel, or on any other electrical A very powerful method for discerning cause-and-effect relationships is scientific method. This methodology is also very useful in technical troubleshooting, since troubleshooting is fundamentally a determination of cause for an observed effect. 2 Objectives Provide basic tools and terms used in computer troubleshooting Identify major internal and external computer components by sight Verbalize basic troubleshooting steps Electrical Safety Electrical Troubleshooting can be hazardous. This simple troubleshooting technique is applicable to a wide variety of electrical, electronic, and other types of systems: swap the suspect component with an identical component known to be functional, and see observe whether or not the problem changes location. Don't have an AAC account? Now, of course, it is possible that both the worklight and the saw suffered independent, simultaneous failures, and all the extension cords are good, but this is not very likely. I’ll let you determine what the nature of this fault most likely is, and why the strategy employed in this scenario probably wasn’t the wisest. Because it is simply more likely that one thing has failed, than that multiple (unrelated) things have failed in just the right way to cause the problem to occur. The clicking noise has something to do with one of the wheels, and not the chain or crank. Troubleshooting of an electronic circuit is a process of having a special outlook on components that comes out with remedies to repair it. Your more adept students will immediately recognize that scenarios 1 and 2 are really quite the same. Explain why or why not. Read the part numbers off the power transistors for the right channel output! Troubleshooting Regulations Basic Electrical Troubleshooting; Advanced Electrical Troubleshooting; PDF Library. Utilizing safe, effective troubleshooting techniques also ensures compliance with OSHA 1910.333(a)(1) which covers the requirements for de-energized work. Gauges, lights, lights, circuit breakers and more. You didn’t bring your multimeter or any other test equipment, so you can’t check for voltage at the receptacle. Unit 5 : Download Link. There is nothing “right-handed” or “left-handed” about the two channels. Aug 31, 2016 - How to wire your car from scratch. Details basic electrical theory and troubleshooting. However, before you step out of the room to go do this, one of your co-workers suggests you start your search at the middle point of the pipeline instead: at the location of valve #4. You may answer this objection by appealing to the indistinguishable sound of the two channels, when listened to separately (mono). Based on the heating technician’s report, you conclude that the service pipeline going up to that house must not be “live,” and that one of the numbered valves was probably left in the off position. Published under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License. By the way, this type of question is excellent for a written test! As you look around the job site, you notice that no one is using welder #2. The voltmeter’s test leads are only long enough to check for voltage between pairs of connections at each terminal block. Electrical Troubleshooting October 2006 PASSAGEMAKER 103 of locations throughout his electrical system. The Maintenance Troubleshooting series is designed for mechanical and/or electrical maintenance technicians who need or want to learn a more structured approach in troubleshooting specific electrical and/or mechanical equipment other than the process of elimination techniques so often applied. “Not exactly,” you reply, “but maybe I can help you anyway.”, “My welder’s dead - it doesn’t even turn on. Without knowing any more details on these two computer systems, what recommendations can you give to the two technicians about to troubleshoot them? Both welders #1 and #2 are still “dead,” which is a worse situation than what you first encountered. Scenario #1, outcome #1: problem is not in the microphone. A simple electric circuit is shown in Fig. The amplifier was damaged at a recent party, when one of your friend’s guests turned up the volume to full and left it there until smoke billowed out of the power amplifier chassis. As an illustration of this principle, you might want to elaborate on your own experiences as an electronics instructor. Read the following description of an experienced troubleshooter diagnosing an automotive electrical problem, and match the troubleshooter’s steps to those five steps previously described for scientific method: Explain which of the three hypotheses was confirmed by the voltmeter’s reading, and how the mechanic was able to know this. Operators are complaining that a large compressor on several occasions has failed to start. TYPE (BASIC) Why should we first consider single faults to account for the problems the circuit is having rather than considering interesting combinations of faults which would account for the same problems? For instance, shorted wiring located far from the equipment enclosure may have caused the components to destruct. This is a common assumption made by beginning troubleshooters: that the most obvious failure is the only failure, or that it must be the primary failure. If test passes, hypothesis is provisionally confirmed. ÜzP³¶ÆFM ¸-¹¸§HÊöˆËî*ã§Ö˜3TMµr†eãU™Ä—´,håVƒÛNÙ:$jiä Æa9Ä«qœâÔ8^ÉêÕÉ ‡]UC(û겯^7YXgÕ8²±œ´8$Ë­‡dc9jqH6–ƒG6–½G6–G6–Y#ˤƑeTãÈƲUãÈÆRÒâ°l,µZ–¥¨ÅaÙXÊÆz§ However, there are some situations where it might actually save time to perform measurements in a linear progression (from one end to the other, until the power or signal is lost). Electrical problems can sometimes be intimidating and somewhat daunting at first. 57:39 – ACC2 Diagnostics . Basic Electronic Troubleshooting Techniques. Scenario #3, outcome #1: mixer input #2 is faulty. Basic Electrical Troubleshooting A boiler feed pump being powered by two 3500 HP inducti on motors appears to be developing a problem. In this case, the good component it it swapped with will be damaged in the swap, and the bad component will not work where it is moved to. At a construction site, several electric “arc” welders are plugged into 480 volt receptacles. One day you decide to water your garden, using a garden hose that is already connected to a spigot on the side of your house: When you turn on the valve at the spigot, though, no water comes out the nozzle at the other end of the hose. If you were asked to troubleshoot each system, how would you approach the two systems differently? This is a common mistake students make when applying the “divide-and-conquer” method of troubleshooting: that whatever component(s) located between the point of good measurement and the point of bad measurement must be the source of the problem. With the load connected, the parallel combination of load and 1 kΩ resistor results in an effective resistance of less than 1 kΩ on the lower half of the divider, resulting in a voltage of less than half the total supply voltage.). What ranges of problems might you expect from each system? Two computer technicians are called to troubleshoot malfunctioning computer systems. Rest assured, with the help of your vehicle’s repair manual and some basic electrical troubleshooting knowledge, everybody should be able to find and fix most electrical problems in no time. Read the following description of an experienced troubleshooter diagnosing an mechanical noise problem in a bicycle, and match the troubleshooter’s steps to those five steps previously described for scientific method: Where is the clicking sound coming from on this bicycle, based on the information presented here? Each receptacle has its own safety disconnect switch and fuse overcurrent protection: You, as an electronics technician working at the job site, happen to be walking past these welders when one of the welding personnel stops you to ask for help. Your task is to declare what is known about the location of the fault based on these scenarios and outcomes. Explain how you might go about troubleshooting this problem, using no test equipment whatsoever. As usual, there is no schematic diagram supplied with this amplifier that would indicate the proper part numbers. There is, however, a potential hazard to doing this. Race cars, kit cars, street rods, restorations and trailers. It’s wise to be prepared with a troubleshooting plan. The following four troubleshooting techniques are popular and widely used to find defects in communication equipment. Language: English Format: Online PDF Size: 60.3 Mb What error did the technician make in concluding the upper resistor must have been failed open? You unsolder the transistors from the circuit board and unscrew them from the heat sink, but you cannot read the part numbers on their cases due to the thermal damage. Describe a procedure for determining the location of the problem (chandelier vs. bulb), without using any electrical test instruments. Scenario #4, outcome #1: the problem is not in the cable. ... 49:30 – Advanced Troubleshooting Techniques for Two-Wire Systems Overview . This seems especially true when students answer troubleshooting questions on written exams. interconnection of electrical devices. Remember that the speaker cables detach easily from the speakers and from the amplifier. What I want is for you to think in general terms: how might the scope of possible problems differ between any two similar systems, one of which is proven while the other is untried? One day, when the heating technicians are on-site doing checks of the gas furnaces in each new house, they report that the last house in the neighborhood does not have natural gas. You know that the main utility connection at the street is “live,” because the gas heater in the contractor mobile building is working just fine. You remove the chassis cover on the amplifier and look inside. Fortunately, electrical circuit troubleshooting is an activity that works well for small groups of students to engage in as well as individual students. One of the most common troubleshooting techniques taught to technicians is the so-called “divide and conquer” method, whereby the system or signal path is divided into halves with each measurement, until the location of the fault is pinpointed. Describe another scenario where a different sequence of voltage readings could have saved time in locating the problem. Troubleshooting Plan | Electronics Troubleshooting Techniques. Each cord has one (male) plug and a receptacle (female) end that accepts up to three plugs: Despite this dangerous wiring, all tools have functioned so far without trouble. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. To troubleshoot, you simply follow logical, step-by-step procedures to arrive at a solution. The logical thinking behind this troubleshooting strategy may confound some of your students, so be prepared to spend adequate time covering and re-covering (if necessary) this question. The electrician is using a voltmeter to check for the presence of voltage between pairs of terminals in the circuit. Follow-up question: describe the general principle you used to locate the suspect area of this power network. •voltage always follows the path of least resistance •it takes less than 1 amp of current to stop your heart. Basic Electrical Troubleshooting for Everyone (Gnv64) - Free ebook download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read book online for free. Swapping components can be a very powerful means of troubleshooting system problems where interchangeable components exist. They follow certain logical steps when looking for a defect in a piece of equipment. Each one is identical to the other at the circuit level, because each channel is expected to perform exactly the same. This is an excellent question for discussion amongst your classmates! Describes and illustrates techniques for troubleshooting electrical and electronic circuits with a focus on control circuits and motors. The terminal blocks are located too far apart to allow for voltage checks between blocks (say, between one connection in TB2 and another connection in TB3). It consists of three basic elements: a battery, a lamp, and connecting wires. Switching the power cables back to their original receptacles doesn’t make things better, either. ‘¥bl« UNIT-V D.C. generators: Principle of operation of dc machines, types of DC GENERAtors., e.m.f equation in a dc generator. These terminal blocks provide convenient connection points to join wires together, enabling sections of wire to be removed and replaced if necessary, without removing and replacing all the wiring. An electric circuitis an interconnection of electrical elements. While the left speaker seems to be working just fine, the right speaker is silent regardless of where any of the stereo’s controls are set: Identify three possible faults that could cause this problem to occur, and identify what components of the stereo system are known to be okay (be sure to count each cable as a separate component of the system!). Microphone #2 seems to be “dead,” meaning that channel #2 on the mixer does not register any signal when the singer sings into that microphone. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Then suddenly both the worklight and the circular saw in the lower-right corner of the illustration stop working. Upon opening the cabinet door for this equipment, your nose is greeted by the pungent odor of burnt circuit board (a smell you are unlikely to forget, once having experienced it). There are, of course, more known “good” components in this system that the three mentioned here, especially if you count discrete electronic components inside the amplifier itself. This task wasmade easier by the fact that we both had a set of schematics for the installation; but even if I hadn’t had a set, the troubleshooting process could have proceeded, albeit at a slower pace. What does this simple fact indicate (or possibly indicate) about the nature of the equipment’s fault? Steps in the scientific method are indicated by superscript numbers at the end of sentences in the original narrative: Steps 3 and 5 are labeled parenthetically because the story does not tell what the mechanic was thinking. Whether or not the electrician’s sequence was the most efficient depends on two factors not given in the problem: Follow-up question: describe a scenario where the given sequence of voltage readings would be the most efficient. Ohm’s Law is the basic formula used in all AC and DC electrical circuits. 1.Diodes – a two terminal PN junction device that allows the flow of current only in one direction. What steps are recommended to take next, if any? The fact that you can smell trouble indicates you are most likely dealing with a catastrophic failure caused by (or resulting in) excessive current. Explain why your co-worker’s idea is better, and also what your next step would be if: (a) you did find pressure at that point, and (b) if you did not find pressure at that point. When components have been heated to such a degree that they emit strong odors, the damage is often visible as well, which makes it easier to locate problem areas. All the other tools continue to function properly (including all the radios, which is very fortunate because the workers become irritable without their music). BASIC ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS •ACTIVE DEVICES – devices or components which requires external source to their operation. I do not expect that you will provide specific, technical answers, because I have given very little information about the malfunctioning systems. If test fails, go back to step #2. This Basic Electrical Training course is designed to meet the training needs of junior electrical maintenance personnel engaged in the daily troubleshooting€of industrial electrical equipment. We will add more posts soon on many topics such as how to build a solar generator, and this post will help build the basics on which those posts will expand. While this simple reasoning may apply in finding “open” faults in long lengths of wire, it does not necessarily hold true for more complex circuits, as other faults may result in similar effects. Despite the undeniable power of the “swap interchangeable components” strategy, it is not fool-proof. We eventually ascertained that a If the swapped component is indeed faulty, but in such a way that it causes a different part of the system to fail with connected to it, this technique will cause a failure in the system where the faulty component is moved to. Discuss with your students the relationship between the mechanic’s steps and the steps given for scientific method. Popular and widely used to find defects in communication equipment is located between. By the way, this type of question is excellent for a test. Well to the so-called “ divide-and-conquer ” method of troubleshooting system problems where interchangeable ”... 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