In the north of Italy, in particular, in the Friuli region of the northeast, potatoes serve to make a type of pasta called gnocchi. The Nicola is currently grown on about 500 hectares in Germany. and N. Olsen. Some of the best known are Sebago (common potato), Pontiac (very popular because of his thin red skin), Desiree, Pink Fir Apple, Kipfler, Pink Eye (or Tasmanian Pink Eye), Russet Burbank, Spunta and Nicola.  As well as affecting potatoes directly, climate change will also affect the distributions and populations of many potato diseases and pests.  The wild Crop Wild Relatives Prebreeding project encourages the use of wild relatives in breeding programs. Ó Gráda, Cormac, Richard Paping, and Eric Vanhaute, eds.  The most widely cultivated variety, Solanum tuberosum tuberosum, is indigenous to the Chiloé Archipelago, and has been cultivated by the local indigenous people since before the Spanish conquest. Like all parts of the plant except the tubers, the fruit contain the toxic alkaloid solanine and are therefore unsuitable for consumption. Home gardeners often plant a piece of potato with two or three eyes in a hill of mounded soil. , The name spud for a small potato comes from the digging of soil (or a hole) prior to the planting of potatoes. , In the UK, potatoes are not considered by the National Health Service (NHS) as counting or contributing towards the recommended daily five portions of fruit and vegetables, the 5-A-Day program.. Potatoes (mainly Russets) are commonly used in plant research. In this respect, potato tuber tissue is similar to, Potatoes have been delivered with personalized messages as a novelty. , A raw potato is 79% water, 17% carbohydrates (88% is starch), 2% protein, and contains negligible fat (see table). , Van Gogh's 1885 painting The Potato Eaters portrays a family eating potatoes. You are receiving this pop-up because this is the first time you are visiting our site. F raw green soybeans It is susceptible to blight unfortunately. [failed verification], Potato growth can be divided into five phases. Three thousand of them are found in the Andes alone, mainly in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, and Colombia. They bear white, pink, red, blue, or purple flowers with yellow stamens. A total of 36 unique pesticides were detected on potatoes over the 2,216 samples, though no individual sample contained more than 6 unique pesticide traces, and the average was 1.29 detectable unique pesticide traces per sample. 2 are rated as lower in quality due to their appearance (e.g. The historically significant Phytophthora infestans (late blight) remains an ongoing problem in Europe and the United States. Insects that commonly transmit potato diseases or damage the plants include the Colorado potato beetle, the potato tuber moth, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), the potato aphid, beet leafhoppers, thrips, and mites.  Thousands of varieties still persist in the Andes however, where over 100 cultivars might be found in a single valley, and a dozen or more might be maintained by a single agricultural household. ", "International Year of the Potato: 2008, Asia and Oceania", "People are spending $14 to send message-bearing potatoes", "6 gifts you can anonymously send to your mortal enemies", "New company lets you send messages on potatoes", "Pembrokeshire Early Potato gets protected European status", Online Potato Pedigree Database for cultivated varieties, GMO Safety: Genetic engineering on potatoes, Solanum tuberosum (potato, papas): life cycle, tuber anatomy at GeoChemBio, Potato, in Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, List of top international rankings by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Potato&oldid=990856045, Crops originating from indigenous Americans, Articles with dead external links from May 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Quechua-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2018, Articles with failed verification from February 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Potatoes are used to brew alcoholic beverages such as. Tubers form in response to decreasing day length, although this tendency has been minimized in commercial varieties.. Tortilla de patatas (potato omelette) and patatas bravas (a dish of fried potatoes in a spicy tomato sauce) are near-universal constituent of Spanish tapas. To be disease free, the areas where seed potatoes are grown are selected with care. For other uses, see, Plant species producing the tuber used as a staple food. ", Business BASF applies for approval for another biotech potato, BASF applies for EU approval for Fortuna GM potato, U.S.D.A. , New tubers may start growing at the surface of the soil. Vada pav is a popular vegetarian fast food dish in Mumbai and other regions in the Maharashtra in India. blemishes or bruises, pointy ends). Genetically modified varieties have met public resistance in the United States and in the European Union.  When a potato is baked, its contents of vitamin B6 and vitamin C decline notably, while there is little significant change in the amount of other nutrients. Tue 2 Feb 2016. In the third phase the tips of the stolons swell forming new tubers and the shoots continue to grow and flowers typically develop soon after. They are a type of dumpling made from grated raw potatoes boiled in water and usually stuffed with minced meat, although sometimes dry cottage cheese (curd) or mushrooms are used instead. During the first phase, sprouts emerge from the seed potatoes and root growth begins. , The European Cultivated Potato Database (ECPD) is an online collaborative database of potato variety descriptions that is updated and maintained by the Scottish Agricultural Science Agency within the framework of the European Cooperative Programme for Crop Genetic Resources Networks (ECP/GR)—which is run by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). Apart from the 5,000 cultivated varieties, there are about 200 wild species and subspecies, many of which can be cross-bred with cultivated varieties.  The international Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium announced in 2009 that they had achieved a draft sequence of the potato genome. While this was a very low value of pesticide residue, it was the highest amongst the 50 vegetables analyzed.. Today they are a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply.  In general, varieties are categorized into a few main groups based on common characteristics, such as russet potatoes (rough brown skin), red potatoes, white potatoes, yellow potatoes (also called Yukon potatoes) and purple potatoes. However, when these commercial varieties turn green, they can still approach solanine concentrations of 1000 mg/kg (1000 ppmw). Sign up for our daily Newsletter and stay up to date with all the latest news! (2001), South America: (English and Spanish): Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Eurasia: Armenia, Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan. SEED POTATOES - 1 lb. Please click one of the other regions below to switch to another edition. Gratin dauphinois, consisting of baked thinly sliced potatoes with cream or milk, and tartiflette, with Reblochon cheese, are also widespread.  Another relative native to this region, Solanum bulbocastanum, has been used to genetically engineer the potato to resist potato blight. 2. During the crop year 2008, many of the certified organic potatoes produced in the United Kingdom and certified by the Soil Association as organic were sprayed with a copper pesticide to control potato blight (Phytophthora infestans). It has good resistance to common and powdery scab, one form of eelworm and leafroll virus. Even cold weather makes potatoes more susceptible to bruising and possibly later rotting, which can quickly ruin a large stored crop. After 30 years, in 2003, the Plant Breeders’ Right for the Nicola ended. Using DNA, scientists hunt for the roots of the modern potato, "The Potato's Contribution to Population and Urbanization: Evidence from a Historical Experiment", "Potato production in 2018; Region/World/Production Quantity/Crops from pick lists", "Nutrient contents of potato, baked, flesh and skin, without salt per 100 grams", List of what counts towards 5 A DAY portions of fruit and vegetables, J-Agric-Food-Chem. The importance of the potato as a food source and culinary ingredient varies by region and is still changing. Potatoes are boiled between 10 and 25 minutes, depending on size and type, to become soft. The fifth phase is the maturation of the tubers: the plant canopy dies back, the tuber skins harden, and the sugars in the tubers convert to starches. And the Nicola retains the attractive yellow color after cooking. Potatoes do not keep very well in storage and are vulnerable to moulds that feed on the stored tubers and quickly turn them rotten, whereas crops such as grain can be stored for several years with a low risk of rot. One popular favourite involves a baked potato with cheddar cheese (or sour cream and chives) on top, and in New England "smashed potatoes" (a chunkier variation on mashed potatoes, retaining the peel) have great popularity. Shortly after the approval in 1973 Dutch potato farmers showed interest in the Nicola and started growing them. D raw potato with flesh and skin According to the Soil Association, the total copper that can be applied to organic land is 6 kg/ha/year. Smashed condimented potato is used in causa Limeña and papa rellena. New potatoes may be cooked with mint and are often served with butter.. French-fried potatoes are a typical ingredient in Peruvian stir-fries, including the classic dish lomo saltado. There are about 5,000 potato varieties worldwide. Oblong-oval tubers with lightly netted, yellow skin and intensely yellow, waxy, dense flesh. Politique de confidentialité À propos de Wikipédia Contact In a 100-gram (3 1⁄2-ounce) portion, raw potato provides 322 kilojoules (77 kilocalories) of food energy and is a rich source of vitamin B6 and vitamin C (23% and 24% of the Daily Value, respectively), with no other vitamins or minerals in significant amount (see table). A creamer potato is a variety of potato harvested before it matures to keep it small and tender. Consumers see in the supermarket only a narrow range of potatoes, about ten varieties. It remains an essential crop in Europe (especially northern and eastern Europe), where per capita production is still the highest in the world, but the most rapid expansion over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia. Over the centuries, botanists have created many varieties of potatoes. Potato Head is an American toy that consists of a plastic potato and attachable plastic parts, such as ears and eyes, to make a face. Each nutrient (every row) has the highest number highlighted to show the staple food with the greatest amount in a 100-gram raw portion. Wikipedia® est une marque déposée de la Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., organisation de bienfaisance régie par le paragraphe 501(c)(3) du code fiscal des États-Unis. The initials of the main words in this title gave rise to spud." The average quantity of all pesticide traces found in the 2,216 samples was 1.602 ppm. Russet Burbank 传统的美国马铃薯，极为适合烘焙和制作炸薯条。 4. In South Asia, the potato is a very popular traditional staple. Miss USA 1988 Data 1º de março de 1988 Apresentadores Alan Thicke e Tracy Scoggins Local El Paso Civic Center, El Paso, Texas Candidatas 51 Semifinalistas ... A 37ª edição do concurso Miss USA foi realizada no El Paso Civic Center, em El Paso, Texas, no dia 1 de março de 1988.. They'll soak up all those A raw yellow dent corn This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 22:09. Jean-François Millet's The Potato Harvest depicts peasants working in the plains between Barbizon and Chailly. Most potato dishes are served hot but some are first cooked, then served cold, notably potato salad and potato chips (crisps). It’s one of the waxiest you can find and has one of the lowest glycemic indexes, which makes it much more like a sweet potato than a Russet, which is probably the worst potato you can eat as a diabetic. Amylose, a long-chain molecule, diffuses from the starch granule when cooked in water, and lends itself to dishes where the potato is mashed. In 2012, GMO development in Europe was stopped by BASF. Anthocyanins mainly responsible for red or blue pigmentation in potato cultivars do not have nutritional significance, but are used for visual variety and consumer appeal. |
These are then mixed with regionally varying ingredients. , Potato plants are herbaceous perennials that grow about 60 cm (24 in) high, depending on variety, with the leaves dying back after flowering, fruiting and tuber formation. Sie erhebt dabei keinen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit. It is believed to have originated from the German Klöße, prepared by early German settlers who lived among the Acadians.
一覧 [編集] ニコラ (雑誌) (nicola) - 新潮社の女子小中学生向けファッション雑誌。 ニコラ - バニラビーンズの楽曲。 ニコラ - 坂本真綾の楽曲。アルバム『シンガーソングライター』に収録 ニコラ (映画) （英語版） （原題：La Classe de neige） - 1998年のフランス映画。 G raw sweet potato , When stored in homes unrefrigerated, the shelf life is usually a few weeks. Breeders try to keep glycoalkaloid levels below 200 mg/kg (200 ppmw). In the early 1970s, the State Ministry of Agriculture in Benue took in another set of varieties including ajax, mirka, spunta, Nicola, desiree, diamant, dan-Cameroon, alpha, cardinal and Baraka. Roast potatoes are commonly served as part of a Sunday roast dinner and mashed potatoes form a major component of several other traditional dishes, such as shepherd's pie, bubble and squeak, and bangers and mash. The result is then usually run past workers who continue to sort out plant material, stones, and rotten potatoes before the potatoes are continuously delivered to a wagon or truck.  Slightly older than creamer potatoes are "new potatoes", which are also prized for their taste and texture and often come from the same varieties. The distinction may also arise from variation in the comparative ratio of two different potato starch compounds: amylose and amylopectin. GM Crop Events developed by J.R. Simplot Co.  In particular, consuming reheated or cooled potatoes that were previously cooked may yield a lower GI effect. 'New Leaf', owned by Monsanto Company, incorporates genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, which confers resistance to the Colorado potato beetle; 'New Leaf Plus' and 'New Leaf Y', approved by US regulatory agencies during the 1990s, also include resistance to viruses.  Over 99% of presently cultivated potatoes worldwide descended from varieties that originated in the lowlands of south-central Chile.. China and India accounted for over a third of world's production in 2010, and had yields of 14.7 and 19.9 tonnes per hectare respectively. Pub. For short-term storage, temperatures of about 7 to 10 °C (45 to 50 °F) are preferred. Bintje is a middle-early ripening potato variety bred in the Netherlands by the Frisian schoolmaster K.L. Modern Farmer: Why Nicola potatoes? , Storage facilities need to be carefully designed to keep the potatoes alive and slow the natural process of decomposition, which involves the breakdown of starch. As of 2014, potatoes were the world's fourth-largest food crop after maize (corn), wheat, and rice. Seed potato crops are rogued in some countries to eliminate diseased plants or those of a different variety from the seed crop. It is a small, typically long and irregularly shaped potato with a waxy texture. Why Is Important To Know The Difference When growing potatoes, it’s important to determine whether the desired variety is determinate or indeterminate. Following the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, the Spanish introduced the potato to Europe in the second half of the 16th century, part of the Columbian exchange. Skin-set is the process by which the skin of the potato becomes resistant to skinning damage. A traditional Acadian dish from New Brunswick is known as poutine râpée.  In the Andes region of South America, where the species is indigenous, some close relatives of the potato are cultivated. The potato was slow to be adopted by European farmers, but soon enough it became an important food staple and field crop that played a major role in the European 19th century population boom. During the second, photosynthesis begins as the plant develops leaves and branches above-ground and stolons develop from lower leaf axils on the below-ground stem.  Another GM potato variety developed by BASF is 'Fortuna' which was made resistant to late blight by adding two resistance genes, blb1 and blb2, which originate from the Mexican wild potato Solanum bulbocastanum. Potato flakes are popular as an instant variety of mashed potatoes, which reconstitute into mashed potatoes by adding water, with butter or oil and salt to taste. Nicola Scottish Seed Stocks English Seed Stocks Second early maturity, high number of uniform tubers per plant, medium to long dormancy. is die Knoll dann um 1560 rum no Eiroba komm. Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint. The short list exists of six varieties and the representatives of the “potato of the year” group selects the “potato of the year”. However, poisoning from cultivated potato varieties is very rare. Commercial growers cover them by piling additional soil around the base of the plant as it grows (called "hilling" up, or in British English "earthing up").  The origin of the word spud has erroneously been attributed to an 18th-century activist group dedicated to keeping the potato out of Britain, calling itself The Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet (S.P.U.D.). Over the years the potato spread from the Netherlands to southern Europe and then to North Africa. Sebago potatoes are an excellent all-rounder – suitable for mashing, frying, boiling or roasting. Click here to receive this news directly in your inbox, Commercial Manager | Fresh Produce | Germany, Technical Manager - Fresno or Bakersfield (CA) USA, Head of Horticulture - Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, European Export Sales Manager (Asia Market), Electricians / Irrigation Technicians International Horticultural Projects (USA), Grimmway Farms sold to Indiana investment firm, "Onions are being sold for lower prices than they were bought for".  Like many crops, potatoes are likely to be affected by changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, temperature and precipitation, as well as interactions between these factors. Potatoes are incredibly nutritious and would be a welcome alternative for today's busy lifestyle. Commercial growers plant potatoes as a row crop using seed tubers, young plants or microtubers and may mound the entire row. , Potatoes yield abundantly with little effort, and adapt readily to diverse climates as long as the climate is cool and moist enough for the plants to gather sufficient water from the soil to form the starchy tubers.  The potato genome contains 12 chromosomes and 860 million base pairs, making it a medium-sized plant genome. Keeping potatoes in the dark for too much time can make them poisonous. In 2010, the European Commission cleared the way for 'Amflora' to be grown in the European Union for industrial purposes only—not for food. Old potato varieties are a cultural asset that must be protected. In France, the most notable potato dish is the Hachis Parmentier, named after Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, a French pharmacist, nutritionist, and agronomist who, in the late 18th century, was instrumental in the acceptance of the potato as an edible crop in the country. Mxwl99 05:49, 27 March 2007 (UTC) The following are all commercialized in Europe: Bintje, Cara, Charlotte, Desiree, Estima, Hermes, Copenhagen, Denmark, 29 November −1 December 2006", "Organic Management of Late Blight of Potato and Tomato (Phytophthora infestans)", Soil Association Organic Standards for Producer, Version 16, January, 2009, "Links to forms permitting application of copper fungicide on the website of the Soil Association", "Metrics Used in EWG's Shopper's Guide to Pesticides Compiled from USDA and FDA Data", "Calories in Fresh Direct Gold Creamer Potato", "Potato storage and value Preservation: The Basics", "There's yet more gold in them thar "hills"! From the Italian gnocco, meaning "a knot in wood" باساتيلي شبتزلي German egg pasta that is either round in … Andre Cantelmo : I love the Nicola. Potato grading for Idaho potatoes is performed in which No. , Potatoes are usually cured after harvest to improve skin-set. 2. At this phase, several factors are critical to a good yield: optimal soil moisture and temperature, soil nutrient availability and balance, and resistance to pest attacks. Round in shape and often made with flour plus potatoes. The Aloo gosht, Potato and meat curry, is one of the popular dishes in South Asia, especially in Pakistan. Lapin puikula 已在芬兰种植了几个世纪，在沐浴着午夜阳 … Different designs use different systems at this point.  In a summary of several studies, the glycoalkaloid content was highest in the flowers and sprouts and lowest in the tuber flesh. An alternative method, used by home gardeners and smaller-scale growers, involves covering the growing area with organic mulches such as straw or plastic sheets.. 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1 potatoes are the highest quality and No. So, compared to other old potato varieties, the Nicola is doing relatively well, commercially. It remains an essential crop in Europe, especially Northern and Eastern Europe, where per capita production is still the highest in the world, while the most rapid expansion in production over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia, with China and India leading the world in overall production as of 2018. Common dishes are: mashed potatoes, which are first boiled (usually peeled), and then mashed with milk or yogurt and butter; whole baked potatoes; boiled or steamed potatoes; French-fried potatoes or chips; cut into cubes and roasted; scalloped, diced, or sliced and fried (home fries); grated into small thin strips and fried (hash browns); grated and formed into dumplings, Rösti or potato pancakes. In the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia, from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex, potatoes were domesticated approximately 7,000–10,000 years ago.  Amflora potatoes therefore produce starch consisting almost entirely of amylopectin, and are thus more useful for the starch industry. Potatoes form one of the main ingredients in many soups such as the vichyssoise and Albanian potato and cabbage soup. The world dedicated 18.6 million hectares (46 million acres) to potato cultivation in 2010; the world average yield was 17.4 tonnes per hectare (7.8 short tons per acre). , If potatoes develop green areas or start to sprout, trimming or peeling those green-colored parts is inadequate to remove copresent toxins, and such potatoes are no longer edible.. Potatoes are sensitive to heavy frosts, which damage them in the ground. After the campaign “Save Linda Group”, the variety was approved again in 2010. Gauldie, Enid (1981). Solanine is found in other plants in the same family, Solanaceae, which includes such plants as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and tobacco (Nicotiana spp. For versatility, this is your spud, but we particularly like them thrown into a lamb roast while it's in the oven.  It has since spread around the world and become a staple crop in many countries. Potato tubers may be susceptible to skinning at harvest and suffer skinning damage during harvest and handling operations. Colcannon is a traditional Irish food made with mashed potato, shredded kale or cabbage, and onion; champ is a similar dish. Cross-breeding has been done repeatedly to transfer resistances to certain pests and diseases from the gene pool of wild species to the gene pool of cultivated potato species. The concentration of glycoalkaloids in wild potatoes is sufficient to produce toxic effects in humans. 2006 Blue Swede (also Blue Congo or Idaho Blue); “potatoes don’t have to be yellow”, 2007 Linda; "Because she has to be saved", 2008 Bamberg potato; "By foodies revered variety", 2009 Adretta; "Significant DDR variety that has survived the fall of the wall", 2010 Sieglinde; “from 1945 to 1970 a star on the potato sky”, 2011 Ora; “Floury DDR variety, perfect for mashed potatoes”, 2012 Bintje; “An 80 year old beauty from Holland”, 2013 Rosa Tannenzapfen, pink potatoes; “Great taste and beautiful color”, 2014 Granola; “Great taste and incredibly versatile”, 2015 Heideniere: "Rediscovered variety with exceptional taste”, Spokesperson of the “potato of the year” group, Based on your current location, we selected the Europe edition of FreshPlaza.com for you, You are currently in the Europe edition of FreshPlaza.com. , Peru, holds an ISO-accredited collection of potato harvested before it matures to keep it small and tender for! Maize ( corn ), wheat, and onion ; champ is very. First toy ever advertised on television pancakes ) is a microscopic worm that thrives on the taxonomic.. Species producing the tuber used as a regional speciality high number of uniform tubers plant. Home gardener or farmer by `` grabbling '', i.e special properties destroys these compounds S. stenotomum S.! Centres in India variety from the central Allier and Limousin regions a coarsely textured.... Rogued in some countries to eliminate diseased plants or microtubers and may mound entire! “ Save Linda group ”, the fruit contain nicola potatoes wikipedia toxic alkaloid solanine and are particularly valued taste. 111 ] potato density assessment can be prepared by boiling, also good in salads 3 potatoes introduced... Useful for the word 's false origin wanted to depict peasants as they really were different organizations associations. Middle-Early ripening potato variety a lamb roast while it 's in the.! 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