v. oxidare, to oxidize; N.L. Fact Sheet: Micrococcus luteus Download PDF here. adj. The susceptibility of the isolate to 8 different antibiotics was tested using the Kirby-Bauer Method agar and the disk diffusion test per the protocol of Lab 9. A second analysis of the DNA was performed using the BLAST genomic database. Member of the genus Staphylococcus are associated with clinical infections whereas that of Micrococcus are rarely involved in infection. Of this information, only the number of contigs that were greater than 1000 base pairs long [# contigs (>=1000bp)], The total length of the assembled genome, the longest contig and the guanine and cytosine percentage in the genome (GC%) were observed. Retrieved April 11, 2017, from Uwindsor.ca website: https://web2.uwindsor.ca/courses/biology/fackrell/Microbes/17375.htm, Your email address will not be published. the following information is not yet verified Small Gram negative coccobacilli with O-shaped morphology Culture characteristics. [2] Der Peptidoglycantyp ist A4α, die beiden Tetrapeptide der Peptidbrücke sind über eine D-Glutaminsäure verbunden (Typ L-Lys-D-Glu).[1][3]. The purity of the isolate was confirmed with the microscopic observation of a mono-culture. In einer schwefelhaltigen Quelle wurde Planococcus rifietoensis entdeckt. [9] The sample was collected from a dry piece of wood. pref. Das Bakterium zeigt Wachstum und Teilung noch bei – 15 Â°C und ist metabolisch noch bei −23 Â°C aktiv. Colony morphology including color, size, margin and elevation was observed from growth on the TSA agar. Verschiedene Arten kommen in der Antarktis vor, wie z.b. These tests proved that the microbe could thrive in an oxygenated as well as an anoxic environment, that it contained cytochrome c oxidase which is a part of the electron transport chain found in microbes that utilize oxygen, and that it contained the catalase mechanism for dealing with oxidative damage, respectively. Streptococcus organisms are Gram positive, microaerophilic and non-motile bacteria. The DNA was then sent to the UAF’s DNA Core Lab sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq DNA sequencer which utilized the next-generation sequencing methodology. EMB is selective for gam-negative bacterium, if the microbe is gram negative and can ferment the sugars present then the plate experiences a color change. See-Too, W. S., Ee, R., Lim, Y.-L., Convey, P., Pearce, D. A., Yin, W.-F., & Chan, K.-G. (2017). The negative results and lack of growth in the API 20e, MAC, and EMB are all consistent with the microbe’s gram-positive cell wall. There exist several sources of streptococcus organisms that include humans as well as many animals where they mostly form colonies in the mucosal surface of the mouth, pharynx, etc. It can form in tetrads or irregular clusters but not in chains and belongs to the family Micrococcaceae. the following information is not yet verified. 2003 emend. P. antarticus thrived in an Antarctica, my sample would likely have similar mechanisms for surviving temperatures around -45 degrees Celsius in Faribanks winters. The next app that was used was the Kraken Metagenomics, which provided taxonomic assignment. masc. Die Gattung ist aerob, zur Energiegewinnung wird die Atmung eingesetzt. coccus-shaped; colony-forming; gram-positive; motile; mesophilic; Bacteria; genome sequence Further analysis of the genomic information was necessary. Der Durchmesser beträgt 1,0–1,2 Î¼m. 1 micrometer diameter, coccus, cells divide linearly. Which type of staining results in a clear object being viewed against a dark background . 99.27%. A suspension of the microbe in broth was tested simultaneously in all 21 of the tests included in the API 20E test strip. nov Planococcus antioxidans (an.ti.o'xi.dans. Isolated from sub-artic decomposing wood. Einige Arten: (Stand 16. Bei letzteren verläuft die Gram-Färbung bei jungen Kulturen negativ, bei älteren positiv. The gram-stain was repeated three times before a successful stain was accomplished. Image 5: Krona Classification Chart from BaseSpace displays the large portion of unclassified reads. The thioglycolate test had growth throughout the agar with thicker growth at the surface, which revealed that the microbe’s oxygen class was facultative aerobe. negative stain. BLAST had a different database and could possibly have the genome of the isolates species if base space did not. The quadratic streak was used 4 times to ensure a pure culture. antioxidans, referring to the characteristic of this strain). The skin of warm-blooded animals, including humans, is a main reservoir for Micrococcus strains, which frequently contaminate foods of animal origin. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates from sediments of eastern Mediterranean Sea in association with environmental parameters. To control growth rates the plates were grown in incubators for 2-4 days at 37 degrees Celsius then moved to a refrigerator to ensure colonies did not grow large enough to touch. The Inhibition Zones exceed the antibiotic specific threshold diameter for susceptibility see table 2 for details. Wichtig für die Identifizierung der Gattung ist die Aminosäure L-Lysin der Zellwand, was auch für die ganze Familie der Planococcaceae gilt. [2][1] Der Oxidase-Test verläuft je nach Art unterschiedlich, so ist die Art Planococcus plakortidis oxidasepositiv, P. maritimus oxidasenegativ. A series of patented solutions C1-4 were added following the protocol to purify and remove inhibitors and proteins until all that remained was a pure solution of DNA. Bei den zellulären Fettsäuren handelt es sich vor allem um verzweigte Fettsäureketten vom Typ anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 und iso-C16:0. Phylogenetic composition and properties of bacteria coexisting with the fungus, de Boer W., van der Wal A. The isolates holotolerance was not tested but the similar cellular membrane composition and habitat conditions indicate that this genus is likely correct. Species Planococcus Strain Y42 Gram stain Positive TAS [50] Cell shape Coccoid IDA Motility Motile TAS [50] Sporulation Non-sporulating TAS [50] Temperature range 4–30 °C IDA Optimum temperature 25 °C IDA pH range; Optimum 6–9; 7.5; IDA Carbon source Yeast extract IDA MIGS-6 Habitat Frozen soil IDA MIGS-6.3 Salinity < 15% NaCl (w/v) TAS [50] MIGS-22 Oxygen requirement Aerobic NAS … Required fields are marked *, Built with Enlightenment Theme and WordPress. coccus-shaped gram-positive Considering the environment in which it was found, there were a few expected results: such as the microbe’s oxygen class and catalase test results. However these similarities are not enough to convince me that they are the same species. Description. The Isolate appeared to be a pure culture by the third quadratic streak; a fourth was performed for certainty. BaseSpace’s SPAdes Gemone Assembler analyzed 128 contigs over 1000 base pairs (bp) long, a total length of over 3.7 million bp, the longest contig  was 196 thousand bp, and the GC% was 44.4%. The most accurate Gram staining results are obtained from the cultures that are. Planococcus ist chemo-organotroph. [2] Der GC-Gehalt in der Bakterien-DNA liegt, je nach Art, zwischen 39 und 52 Mol-Prozent[2] Die überwiegende Menachinone sind MK-6, MK-7 und MK-8. BLAST provided many species level classifications with similar query cover and percent identity. Ivanova et al. Die Arten sind halotolerant, toleriert werden 0–17 % Natriumchlorid (Kochsalz). When the colonies grew one colony was transferred onto fresh TSA plates. The gram-stain revealed that the isolate was a gram-positive coccid: Image 2. Some Methylobacterium strains ar… My isolate was not just aerobic but a facultative aerobe, which is inconsistent with two articles that state the genus is strictly aerobic5. Diese Art kann gegen die Grauschimmelfäule, verursacht von dem Schimmelpilz Botrytis cinerea eingesetzt werden. Motility: The rods are usually motile by peritrichal flagella. While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of this information, please check current reference material prior to growth or handling of microorganisms. Growth occurred with 3-15 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3-5 %), … Planococcus Salinus Sp. Jeong-Hwa C, Wan-Taek I, Qing-Mei L, Jae-Soo Y, Jae-Ho S, Sung-Keun R, Dong-Hyun R. Reddy G, Prakash J, Vairamani M, Prabhakar S, Matsumoto G. Shivaji S. Tuncer, I. Die Zellen von Planococcus sind kokkenförmig. Not acid-fast. Valášková V., de Boer W., Gunnewiek P. J. K., Pospíšek M., Baldrian P. (2009). Im Permafrostboden bei der Wetterstation Eureka auf der Insel Ellesmere Island im kanadisch-arktischen Archipel wurde Planococcus halocryophilus gefunden. The antibiotics tested were Amikacin, Cefazolin, Cefoperazone, Gentamicin, Piperacillin, Tobramycin, Trimethoprim and Vancomycin. The isolate was found to be susceptible to all antibiotics tested with the disk diffusion test. Die Zellen können allein, in Paaren (Diplokokken), als Tetraden oder in Haufen auftreten. Description: Micrococcus luteus (M. luteus) is a Gram-positive to Gram-variable, non-motile, coccus, saprotrophic bacterium. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain SCU63 T to species in the genera Planococcus and Planomicrobium ranged from 96.5 to 98.6 %. Planococcus antarcticus CMS 26or is a mesophilic, gram-positive, motile bacterium that forms circular colonies and was isolated from cyanobacterial mat sample. The stains used in the Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain are. Both of these organisms are normal flora of skin and mucous membranes of man and animals. The cells inoculated onto Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) and MacConkey Agar (MAC) plates. Of the few documents that relate to Planococcus donhaensis, there is one that notes the origin of the sample, the South Korean Sea. The second most likely species suggested by was P. antarticus, at least this species shares a similar environment. [1] Einige Kulturen sind auch halophil, sie sind auf hohe Salzkonzentrationen angewiesen. PAMC21323 is a gram (+), motile, psy-chrotrophic bacteria, which can grow over a broad temperature range (5–40 °C). SUMMARY The contribution of enzyme tests to the accurate and rapid routine identification of gram-positive cocci is introduced. Kraken Metagenomics app was only able to classify 2.67% of reads, and of those reads only 17% of those reads identified the microbe as Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Planococcus. Cell lysis was accomplished through adding sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), which is a surfactant that chemically weakened the cell walls, and the use of PowerBeads and the centrifuge to mechanically break the cell walls. Planococcus maitriensis und P. antarcticus. Prokaryote, Eubacteria Gram Positive Cocci Compare aerobes: Deinobacter grandis Deinococcus , Marinococcus , Micrococcus , Planococcus , Salinicoccus roseus Yasuyoshi Nakagawa, Takeshit Sakane, Akira Yokota: Jung-Hoon Yoon, Seok-Seong Kang, Keun-Chul Lee, Eun Sook Lee, Yung Hee Kho, Kook Hee Kang, Yong-Ha Park: Nadia C. S. Mykytczuk, Simon J. Foote, Chris R. Omelon, Gordon Southam, Charles W. Greer und Lyle G. Whyte: M.A. Gram stain. A novel Gram-stain-positive, coccoid or short rod-shaped, moderate-orange-pigmented, halotolerant and psychrotolerant bacterium, designated strain SCU63T, was isolated from a saline soil sample in China, and characterized by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. While under the microscope it was observed that the cells could be aligned linearly, in pairs or quads but not in a longer strep chain. Microscopically, it is a cocci-shaped bacterium measuring 0.5 to 0.7 μmin diameter (Fig. The cells are aerobic, Gram‐stain‐positive, non‐spore‐forming, and occur as cocci, short rods, or rods (0.8–1.1 × 0.8–3.4 … B. Caryophanon oxidasenegativ, die Art Planococcus columbae ist oxidasepositiv, andere Arten von Planococcus sind wiederum oxidasenegativ. The gram-stain was repeated three times before a successful stain was accomplished. Tests were performed on the isolate by obtaining cells from either the TSA plates or from the slant agar. At the genus level, morphology can vary greatly. • Grow a wide range of temperature in ordinary media. 1a). The purity of the isolate was confirmed with the microscopic observation of a mono-culture. Die am häufigsten in der Membran vorkommende Lipide sind Diphosphatidylglycerin und Phosphatidylglycerin. It forms orange colonies and grows at NaCl concentrations of 2–10 % (w/v) (optimum, 4 % w/v), at 4–50 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and at pH 6.0–10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). Mealybugs are sexually dimorphic. Engelhardt, K. Daly, R.P.J. Planococcus antarcticus ist psychrophil, es lebt nur unter niedrigen Temperaturen, aber auch mesophile Arten sind vorhanden. The Microbes transfer to the agar slant was successful: Image 1, and was successfully re-cultured from the slant when necessary. It is natural for bacteria in these community’s to be adapted to oxidative stress8. The colonies on LB agar (Oxoid) are circular, smooth, and white. Decomposing communities frequently have a mix of fungi and bacteria. Die Gram-Färbung verläuft bei den Arten von Planococcus grampositiv bis gramvariabel. part. One such mechanism is the use of Catalase to catalyze the transformation of the reactive species hydrogen peroxide into O2. The assigned taxonomy all the way to the species level was displayed in both the Krona classification chart and the Top 20 Classification Result by taxonomic level. The isolates holotolerance was not tested but the similar cellular membrane composition and habitat conditions indicate that this genus is likely correct. The TSA medium provided a suitable environment for a variety of bacteria and a few molds. Morphology: Regular or unbranched rods with rounded ends. The results of the Kraken Metagenomics app were below values required for certainty. The literature on the Planococcus species like donghaensis, kocurii, halocryophilus and antarticus often notes how closely related the species are and how further analysis like G-C content, fatty acid strains, DNA-DNA hybridization etc1,2 are needed to differentiate the species. After learning about some extreme life styles that microbes could have, I was curious if I could find one in my own home. “Interactions between saprotrophic basidiomycetes and bacteria,’ in. erweitert. These results reveal that the cells contained both cytochrome c-oxidase and the catalase enzyme respectively. Die Typusart ist Planococcus citreus. n. Planococcus motile coccus. Genus planococcus. Which stain would be the best choice for detecting mycobterium. Using the protocol of lab 6 the physiological characteristics were tested. The cells were measured to be 1 micrometer in diameter. ; M. luteus was first known as Micrococcus lysodeikticus and was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928. To conclusively Identify the taxonomy of this isolated microbe, it would be advisable to repeat DNA isolation and genomic analysis that was preformed in this project, and to additionally perform other genotypic analyses like, DNA-DNA hybridization and 16s rRNA analysis and fatty acid identity. The sample was streaked using the quadratic method to grow pure isolated colonies onto a tryptic soy agar (TSA) plate. n. planos wanderer; Gr. The gram-stain revealed that the isolate was a gram-positive coccid: Image 2. Yellow colonies that’s size increases with time, a smooth round margin, elevated dome. This is consistent with a study that found, to the level of the genus, that Planococcus’ were susceptible to all antibiotics tested3. BLAST suggested Genus and species with associated query cover percentage and identity percentage. Die Gram-Färbung verläuft bei den Arten von Planococcus grampositiv bis gramvariabel. Dieser Artikel behandelt die Bakteriengattung; Yoon et al. Juli 2020 um 11:44 Uhr bearbeitet. [6] Planoccous halophilus ist nun als Marinococcus halophilus klassifiziert. Several other species had similar query cover, including Planococcus antarticus: Image 7. The current taxonomy of the genera of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cocci based on genotypic and phenotypic characterization is reviewed. Micrococcus luteus is a Gram-positive, to Gram-variable, nonmotile, coccus, tetrad-arranging, pigmented, saprotrophic bacterium that belongs to the family Micrococcaceae. Der Katalase-Test ist immer positiv, der Urease-Test verläuft immer negativ. The percent of contigs read needed to be greater than 80% and the percent of those reads that needed to agree upon a classification to trust that classification to the genus level was 80% and to the genus level was 60%. The bacterium is Gram-positive and possesses all the characteristics of the genus Planococcus. 9 mol % G + C in their DNA respectively; they were identified as Planococcus sp. [2] Nitrat wird von einigen Arten reduziert, z.b. If any microbes grew from the firewood it would mean that they were able to withstand temperatures below -50 degrees Celsius and be psycrophiles, if any microbes grew in my wood stove they would have had to be thermophiles. The bacterium was found to be aerobic and Gram-stain positive. Methylobacterium are extremely important because they can use methanol and methylamine as well as C2, C3 and C4 compounds to grow. [8] Die Art Planococcus antarcticus wurde in Matten von Cyanobakterien aus Teichen in der Antarktis gefunden und zeigt Wachstum bei Temperaturen von 0 bis 30 Â°C. These tests reveal nothing more than a conformation that it is indeed a gram-positive microbe. Planococcus was P. antarticus thrived in an Antarctica, my sample would likely have similar mechanisms for temperatures... The genomic data coccid: Image 3 as C2, C3 and C4 to... Sample was streaked using the blast genomic database see table 2 for details all antibiotics! With BaseSpace revealed unreliable data as well as C2, C3 and C4 compounds grow. It would be helpful to have mechanisms to process radical oxygen species Art Planococcus antarcticus ist psychrophil, es nur! Die Arten sind halotolerant, toleriert werden 0–17 % Natriumchlorid ( Kochsalz ) Bakterium zeigt Wachstum und Teilung noch –! Die Grauschimmelfäule, verursacht von dem Schimmelpilz Botrytis cinerea eingesetzt planococcus gram stain along wood... Mac ) plates the microscope, such as cell alignment shape and.. Two articles that state the genus level, morphology can vary greatly and. Antibiotics tested were Amikacin, Cefazolin, Cefoperazone, Gentamicin, Piperacillin, Tobramycin, Trimethoprim and.! Optimum 3-5 % ), als Tetraden oder in Haufen auftreten tests included in the API 20e test is for! C3 and C4 compounds to grow pure isolated colonies onto a tryptic soy agar ( Oxoid ) circular! Strain ) slant was successful: Image 2 identified 64 tRNAs, rRNAs! Meet these thresholds, and was only approved in 19806, als Tetraden oder Haufen... Email address will not be published Bakteriengattung ; Yoon et al were prepped in slides some were... Image 3 medium provided a suitable environment for a variety of bacteria and a few molds found... Not meet these thresholds, and white occurring in long, parallel chains belongs! My isolate was confirmed with the disk diffusion test oldid=202051330, „Creative Attribution/Share. Are found in drinking water then the water is aid to be aerobic and positive. Antarticus thrived in an Antarctica, my sample would likely have similar mechanisms for surviving temperatures around -45 Celsius... Citrus mealybug, is a gram-positive microbe of Catalase to catalyze the transformation of the morphological and physiological made. That are an Antarctica, my sample would likely have similar mechanisms for surviving around... 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