To keep the USSR abreast of information and technological revolutions at par the West. Haseeb Ahmed, Oil and Gas Analyst at GlobalData, comments: “The FSU is expected to witness the start of operations of 11 new-build gas storage sites by 2024. Filed Under: CBSE Tagged With: CBSE 12 Political Science, CBSE 12 Political Science The End of Bipolarity. Russian Oil Production As a major global producer and exporter of oil, natural gas, and coal, Russia’s economic growth is primarily driven by its fossil fuel reserves. (b) It gave aid and technical assistance for steel plants like Bhilai, Bokaro, Vishakhapatnam and machinery plants like Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. 5. Answer:  The Second World countries or the group of east European countries who were liberated from fascist forces, followed the model of the USSR, known as Socialist Bloc. Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia, Herzegovina. (c) India too supported Soviet foreign policy in some crucial but indirect ways. The 8-year effort of Western capital, technology, and diplomacy had aimed to … The Caspian Sea region has become a central focal point for untapped oil and natural gas resources from the southern portion of the former Soviet Union. Drilling Down. Russia has the largest reserves and is the largest exporter of natural gas. The GDP of Russia also declined between 1989 to 1999. Uzbekistan’s Gazli II and Russia’s Stepnovskoe II are the largest upcoming gas storage sites in the region, with respective capacities of 247 bcf and 199 bcf by 2024.” Our domestic oil and gas experience includes representing mineral owners and their families in negotiations, drafting all types of oil and gas agreements and contracts, and assisting clients in title matters. 1. The end of the Soviet Union, in other words, was more an admixture of Tsarist-rooted “economic backwardness,” population centers far removed from oil and gas sources, “the inherent contradictions of the Soviet system,” and fluctuations in global oil prices than of Reagan-era pressures. 4. 2. (a) India received military hardware from Soviet Union. 4. US Energy Information Administration, International statistics, accessed 1 Dec. 2013. The Baltic and East European states wanted to join European Union and became the part of NATO. Russia (3). The WARSAW PACT, a military alliance held them together and the USSR was the leader of the bloc. However, information about the Soviet famine of 1932–1933 was suppressed by the Soviet authorities until perestroika . (e) Even countries and provinces are fighting over river water. (e) Berlin wall. 2. 14. What was Soviet system? 5. CBSE 12 Political Science The End of Bipolarity. The Soviet Political System central around the Communist Party and no other political party or opposition was allowed. “With the disintegration of the second world, India should change its foreign policy and focus more on friendship with the US rather than with traditional friends like Russia”. The Government withdrew subsidies and pushed people into poverty. Balkan republics of Yugoslavia. NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 are part of the Political Science Class 12 NCERT Solutions. the end of the Cold War. (c) Indian heroes from Raj Kapoor to Amitabh Bachhan are household names in Russia. It was not until 1949 that production returned to pre-war levels, according to an electronic library of documents from the Soviet Union’s Statistical Bureau. Lack of democracy and the absence of freedom of speech stifled people who often expressed their dissent in jokes and cartoons. Answer: 1. 3. members of the CIS and Russia became the successor state who inherited the Soviet sea in the UN and accepted all the international treaties and commitments. 3. 6. 12. Yet their theories for how great markets organize an economy contrast sharply with the planned economies of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics (USSR) and the Soviet East. 6. Answer:  4. By Heede's calculation, government-run oil and coal companies in the former Soviet Union produced more greenhouse gas emissions than any other … Russia weighs scenarios for declining global oil demand (12/7) EU’s biggest oil producer to end North Sea operations by 2050 (12/4) Alaska’s ANWR oil exploration auction set for January 6th (12/3) 3. Czechoslovakia Czechs (1) and Slovakia(2). Central Asia's abundant resources — including oil, natural gas, minerals and cotton — went toward sustaining the Soviet economic machine, and road, railway and pipeline networks linked the region to Russia. More, through Ruhrgas and the Dutch Gasunie -of which Shell and Exxon owned 50%-, those … People locked democracy and were snatched away their right to freedom of speech and expression. World Bank and IMF became powerful advisors due to their economic support to these countries during transitional period. What was Shock Therapy? Shock therapy involved a drastic change in the external orientation. (c) party dominated the [5] It is also the main transit country for oil from Kazakhstan. Caspian Sea oil and gas field development has been one of the main focuses of industry attention since former Soviet Union countries opened their doors to western oil companies early this decade. After 1991, it broke apart with several provinces like Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina declaring independence. Most of the institutions of the Soviet state needed reform : the one-party system It had a complex communication network, vast energy resources including oil, iron and steel, (machinery) production and a transport sector that connected its remotest _areas with efficiency. Russia - Russia - Economy: The Russian republic, by virtue of its great size and abundant natural resources, played a leading role in the economy of the Soviet Union. with the rule of Communist Party of Soviet Union? (c) Gorbachev worked to democratise the Soviet System. Mention any two characteristics of Soviet Political System. Answer:  1. Name the republic/place where severe conflict took place. substantial American interest in the USSR as an energy supplier. 1. (iv) This disintegration emerged in many new countries dividing Soviet Union into 15 independent countries alongwith their own aspirations and choices. Only the Communist Party was ruling over there and no opposition was allowed. Azerbaijan - oil, gas and energy. 4. In 1972, the Ba’ath Party nationalized the Iraq Petroleum Company and the Vice President of Iraq (Saddam Hussein) negotiated a trade agreement and a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union to soften the anticipated loss of revenue. Answer:  Shock Therapy was a painful process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system. 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Russia is by far the world's largest natural gas exporter. Answer: Russia revived its economy in 2000 by the export of natural resources like oil, natural gas and minerals. (b) Gorbachev focused to normalise relations with the west. Yugoslavia (6). Questions 3. The Soviet economy was then more developed than the rest of the world except for the US. The NATO intervention and the bombing of Yugoslavia followed interethnic civil war. Military alliances had been abolished and demand arose for world peace and security. Lack of productivity and technology created shortage of food which increased food imports every year. Privatisation led to new disparities which divided Russia between rich and poor people creating economic inequality. Russia’s major oil producers have so far declined to comment on their output targets for next year. Answer:  The rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including Russia and the Baltic Republic (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), Ukraine, Georgia and others proved to be the most immediate cause for disintegration of the USSR. Why is it said that collapse of Berlin wall signified the collapse of bipolar world? Which among the following statements that describe the nature of Soviet economy is wrong? government and Soviet control. (d) Russian Revolution This was not the best way to make a transition from communism to capitalism due to following drawbacks: At the end of 2008, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) adopted a rule that made substantial changes in the ways oil (crude oil and natural gas liquids) and natural gas reserves are accounted for in the financial reporting subject to its jurisdiction. (а) The Soviet Union supported India’s positions on the Kashmir issue in the WN. Decrease in production of oil and natural gas, diminish in GDP growth rate also affected the share of oil sector in GDP. NATO intervention and bombing on Yugoslavia. 3. Oil and Natural Gas Production. 5. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the largest firm in Russia has been the state-controlled natural gas monopoly Gazprom. 2. as it could not cope with the political and economic aspirations of people and resulted in: Very Short Answer Type Questions [2 Marks] (a) Czechoslovakia, split peacefully into two with the Czechs and Slovaks, forming independent countries. To democratise the Soviet System. 4. Answer: 1. 3. based on ideology. To democratise Soviet System and to normalise relations with the west. The Soviet Union became the great power after the Second World War. In what manner Gorbachev’s reform policy was protested? 1. Economic stagnation for many years led to severed consumer shortage and a large section of Soviet society began to double the system because Communist Party was not accountable to peoples. Russia, the large state controlled industrial complex lost about 90 per cent of its industries through sales to private individuals and companies The economy was planned and controlled by the state only. 15 Republics. The Communist Party of Soviet Union had ruled for over 70 years but it was not accountable to people. India has been benefitted from its relationship on the issues like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing information on international terrorism, access to Central Asia and balancing its relation with China. Gorbachev’s Reform Policies: Large natural gas reserves discovered in Siberia and the Ural and Volga regions in the 1970s and 1980s enabled the Soviet Union to become a major gas producer. Ordinary people had been alienated and were exempted from enjoying the privileges and to participate actively in political affairs. The above mentioned reasons made the Soviet economy stagnant. 1. In eastern Europe, Czechoslovakia split peacefully into two, with the Czechs and the Slovaks forming independent countries. Passage Based Questions [5 Marks] Of these, nine are planned and the remaining two are announced sites. Soviet system lacked democracy and the freedom of speech of people was also snatched away. Answer:  Collapse of Berlin Wall unified the Just before Soviet oil production peaked in 1988 (the event walked hand in hand with a major drop in oil prices), the empire realized that it no longer had enough black gold to pay its bills. Key projects in the FSU are expected to contribute around 1 587 000 bpd of global crude production and roughly 17.5 billion ft 3 /d of global gas production in 2025. authoritarian making life difficult for citizens. 7. Most dominating republic of Soviet Union. Inflation rose at a very high rate and it lost all savings of people. Answer. Explain six factors which helped Soviet Union becoming superpower after Second World War. mer USSR area are the major alternative to oil produced by OPEC countries. 2. Answer:  I. Co-operation with Russia and its republics like Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan in the form of partnership and investment in oil fields has also benefitted India. Beginning in May 2005, oil from the southern sections of the Caspian Sea began pumping through a new pipeline (built by a BP-led consortium) to the Turkish seaport of Ceyhan. We have experience in all major producing regions with a domestic emphasis on Texas and Oklahoma, as well as international experience in Mexico, Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, … 3. Oil-sector investment fell sharply in Russia in 2004, soon followed by a sharp slowdown in the growth of output and exports (Fig. 4. 4. 3. 6. Exceeding production in 2000 by 3.2 Mbbl/d (510,000 m3/d). 4. Russia (3). 7. (b) In Azerbaijan’s provinces of Nagorno-Karobakh, some local Armenians want to secede and join Armenia. Who took the command during these events? The biggest Russian oil company is Rosneft followed by Lukoil, Surgutneftegaz, Gazprom Neft and Tatneft. The Former Soviet Union (FSU) is expected to witness the highest global working gas capacity additions, contributing around 32% of the global gas storage capacity additions by 2024, says GlobalData, a leading data, and analytics company. There was no unemployment in the Soviet system. The US became the sole superpower and capitalist economy became dominant at international level. Mention any two possibilities which were being presumed in changed scenario of world politics after disintegration of the USSR. With the disintegration of Soviet Union, military alliances came to an end and the world became unipolar. The newly evolved criterion required to make a total shift to a capitalist economy to root out completely any structures evolved during Soviet period. What were the factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms in the USSR? To keep the USSR abreast of the Write a note on tension and conflicts that occurred in Russia. Was this the best way to make a transition from communism to capitalism? 4. 1. The Group operates in the former Soviet Union, Europe, Southeast Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. 4. The value of ‘ruble’, the Russian currency, declined dramatically due to high rate of inflation and real GDP of Russia also declined between 1989 to 1999. Russian exports consist of more than 5 Mbbl/d (790,000 m3/d) of oil and nearly 2 Mbbl/d (320,000 m3/d) of refined products, which go mainly to the European market. When oil prices hovered around record highs in the early … 4. Land and productive assets were owned by the state only. 8. (b) Moscow’s method to deal with Chechen rebels and indiscriminate military bombings led to many human rights violation but for deter aspirations for independence. 2. “We have partially replaced the fall in oil drilling with drilling for gas producers,” he said. The oil and gas in the "transit countries" of the former USSR / 31 Arkadiusz Sarna Chapter 4. (c) Communist (d) Gorbachev 4. Disintegration of Soviet Union gave an end to Cold War confrontations and to ideological disputes between two superpowers. 4. Turkmenistan (4) and Uzbekistan (5). 5. 3. Russia has started some manufacturing units also to revive its economy. 3. Economic: Russia's oil and gas companies The biggest Russian oil company is Rosneft followed by Lukoil , Surgutneftegaz , Gazprom Neft and Tatneft . Economic Stagnancy: The Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining nuclear and military arsenals. 7. 2. Azerbaijan, the oldest known oil producing region in the world, experienced an oil boom at the beginning of the 20th century and later served as a major refining centre in the former Soviet Union. Russia produced an average of 10.83 million barrels (1,722,000 m3) of oil per day in December 2015. 9. 1. Identify two major oil and gas producers of Soviet Union. 1. 3. Political: 1. In a letter to the editor published by The New York Times on December 3, 1981, he warned upon “the involvement of major international oil companies in the European natural gas market”. 5. Turkmenistan (4) and Uzbekistan (5). In addition to having the world's largest proven reserves of natural gas, according to US Geological Survey estimations, Russia is also likely to have the world's largest volume of still-undiscovered natural gas: a mean probable volume of 6.7 trillion cubic meters. 10. Some sections of Soviet Society felt that Gorbachev should have moved much faster and were disappointed and impatient with him. Chapter 3. 5. “ The old system of social welfare was systematically destroyed”. … Answer:  Soviet system was introduced after Socialist Revolution in Russia in 1917. The economy was planned and controlled by the state only. A separate Soviet gas industry was created in 1943. There was an absence of unemployment in Soviet Union. This led to a huge economic burden on people to be coped up with. Why did people become dissatisfied The Soviet system, however, became very bureaucratic and authoritarian, making life very difficult for its citizens. What were the major consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union for countries like India? 4. IV. and Samuelson, who extol the virtues of markets for organizing an economy. 1. Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, Irkutsk National Research Technical University, Russia continues to post record oil production, Key World Energy Statistics. (c) India and Soviet Union got mutual agreements to produce military equipments. In Russia: Even other countries have also gained due to crossing of pipelines from their region and they have been paid a rent. Many of those who look at peak oil consider the world’s peak oil, as shown in Reynolds (1999b and 2009), to be a short run phenomenon and that, rather like the Soviet Union, oil production will soon increase again possibly because of the Iraqis newly revitalized oil sector. Deprived of cheap oil and … 3. 3. Rosneft Oil Co will occupy the second place with operatorship of five upcoming oil and gas projects. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 1, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 2, Periodic Classification of Elements Class 10, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 7, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 8, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 9, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 10, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 11, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 12, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 13, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 14, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 15, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 16, CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12, CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10. 2. Ukraine (7) and Belarus (8). WESTERN OPPORTUNITIES FOR INVESTMENT IN THE OIL INDUSTRY OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION* Lori Ann Feathers** INTRODUCTION As recently as 1988, the Soviet Union produced 20.6 % of total world oil output, … Or 4. In Eastern Europe which republic split into two? 2. 4. What was the immediate cause of disintegration of USSR? 1. The political and economic systems of all these countries were modelled after the USSR and collectively were called the second world. The party refused to recognise the urge of people in the fifteen different republics that formed the Soviet Union to manage their own affairs including their cultural affairs. According to the company’s latest report*, the two other key planned projects in the FSU region are in Kazakhstan, led by the colossal Kashagan crude oil project, which is … Due to slow and stifling administration, the inability of system to correct mistakes lost popular support. (а) Gorbachev’s reforms aimed at keeping the USSR abreast of information and technological revolutions taking place in the west. 5. With a post-Soviet Union record of 11.3 million barrels of oil produced per day in 2018, Russia is the world’s second largest oil producer, only behind the United States (Clemente, 2019). Map Based Questions [5 Marks] In Dec 1991, under the leadership of Boris Yeltsin, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus declared themselves independent. The centralisation of authority in > vast land. What was Socialist Bloc? The country remained the largest trade partner for each of the Central Asian states for the first … information and technological revolutions. Answer:  (d) Crises in the Middle East, 4. Plans to develop direct energy relations between the US and Russia have been slow to come to fruition, and only a handful of projects involving US companies … (Under Putin it has returned to 10-million barrels.) Russia is responsible for 25 key crude and natural gas projects expected to commence operations by 2025, dominating the Former Soviet Union’s (FSU) oil and gas production, says research and consulting firm GlobalData.. (b) Economic stagnation for many years to severe consumer shortages. 1. The domestic demand in 2005 was 2.6 Mbbl/d (410,000 m3/d) on average. These policy changes have already triggered a slowdown in oil-sector growth, particularly in Russia. 1. 1. Answe:  The following factors helped Soviet Union becoming superpower after Second World War: 2. “Gazprom is exporting 200 billion cubic metres per year to the European Union and Turkey, what Gazprom is calling the far abroad. It systematically destroyed old system of social welfare. (a) The Soviet Political System was 4. 2006 Edition, Table 3.2 Natural gas proven reserves by country, An Estimate of Undiscovered Conventional Oil and Gas Resources of the World, LUKoil to lose the lead soon. The Company's strategic gas production regions for the long term include the YamalPeninsula, Eastern Siberia, the Far East, and the Russian continental shelf. 1. (ii) This disintegration created the possibility to bring in a ‘multipolar system’ where no power could dominate. 4. in the USSR in 1985. 3. ... Pertamina adding renewable fuels production at two refineries. 3. As a major global producer and exporter of oil, natural gas, and coal, Russia’s economic growth is primarily driven by its fossil fuel reserves. Name various provinces with which Yugoslavia had been broken in 1991? Russia. He was forced to initiate the reforms in the USSR due to following reasons: Several months after President Donald Trump was inaugurated in January 2017, SMW Partners was hired to lobby the White House on behalf of two high-profile clients from the former Soviet Union… "Western Opportunities for Investment in the Oil Industry of the Former Soviet Union." members of Commonwealth of Independent States. A separate Soviet gas industry was created in 1943. Higher world oil prices, the use of Japanese technology, and the … [2] It is the third largest energy user.[3]. Soviet system was bureaucratic and How did Shock Therapy affect trade and commerce of Russia? Fuel supply chaos At the start of the Great Patriotic War, as it was known in the Soviet Union, there was a good supply of fuel, but no well-defined strategy for its storage and supply to the combat army. 1. 2. Military: Kazakh state-run oil and gas producer KMG to produce 21.7mn tonnes in 2021 30 November 2020 Russia to hike price of oil for Belarus to 88-90% of the global level in 2021 from the current 85% Mention some features of Soviet Society. Most dominating republic of Soviet Union. [4] In June 2006, Russian crude oil and condensate production reached the post-Soviet maximum of 9.7 million barrels (1,540,000 m3) per day. 2. Though it varies in intensity and speed amongst the former second world countries but its direction and features were quite similar. (a) Tajikistan witnessed a civil war that went on for ten years till 2001. The east European countries the Soviet army had liberated from the fascist forces came under the control of the USSR. With reference to Shock Therapy, justify the statement. Mention the causes of Soviet disintegration. Russia is also benefitted from India on ground of the second largest arms market for Russia. 5. American University International Law Review 7, no. The value of Ruble, the Russian ’ currency declined. 1. (c) The ordinary citizens were exempted from gaining the privileges. Answer. In Central Asia: 1. What is meant by Shock Therapy? 1. 11. He explained that the projected volume of gas that will flow to China, starting in 2025 or 2026 is going to be 38 billion cubic metres per year, which is pretty close to the annual exports to the former Soviet Union. It had a domestic consumer industry that produced everything from pins to cars to make themselves self-dependent. (c) After 1991, Yugoslavia broke \ apart with several provinces like Croatia, Slovania, Bosnia and Herzegovina declaring independence. This issue was resolved quickly by making these republics as founding 7. Hence, industries were undervalued and sold at throwaway prices. 2. (a) The Soviet Union assisted India’s public sector companies at a time when such assistance was difficult to get. Each of these basins is discussed. 3. 4. 4. 1. (c) Change in the balance of power in the world order Gas exploration, development, and distribution were centralized in the Ministry of Gas Industry, which was created in 1965. However, a close comparison of the Soviet Union and the world suggests that the world will not suddenly have an increase in oil … “The Soviet Union lagged behind the West”. Answer:  1917. Gazprom pursues the strategy of producing gas in the volumes adjusted by demand. 3. (b) India got technological know-how regarding maintenance of military arsenal. (c) The Soviet Union accepted Indian currency for trade when India was short of foreign exchange. November’s OPEC deal to cap production could put a dampener on this field day, however. Large natural gas reserves discovered in Siberia and the Ural and Volga regions in the 1970s and 1980s enabled the Soviet Union to become a major gas producer. (a) Socialism was the dominant ideology. The Soviet system ensured a minimum standard of living for its citizens. 2. These are situated in the 7 main basins: Volga-Ural, W. Siberia, middle Caspian, S. Caspian, Karakum, Dnieper-Donets, and Timano-Pechorsky. (b) Fall of the Berlin Wall (Nov 1989) Oil production peaked at about 500,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) during World War II, then fell significantly after the 1950s as the Soviet Union redirected resources elsewhere. 3. The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed large sections of society into poverty and it emerged mafia to start controlling many economic activities. 2. Rise of Nationalism and Desire for Sovereignty: 4. 1. Write anote onformationof Commonwealth of Independent States. 1. (c) Disintegration of Soviet Union, 3. Given these headwinds, oil production stopped rising, and by 1988, began to fall. 5. 4. Introduction The Influence of Natural Resources on Economic Development: a Brief Review of Theories and the Problems of Applying Them to the Case of the USSR Discovering Oil From Azerbaijan to Western Siberia Estimates of the Russian Economy’s Resource Rent in the Soviet Period Energy Efficiency of the Soviet Economy as an Indicator of Weakening of Energy Preservation Incentives Oil and Gas in Soviet Foreign … The Soviet Union reached a peak of 12.58 million barrels per day (2.000 × 10 ^ 6 m 3 /d) in total liquids in 1988, and production had fallen to around 6 million barrels per day (950 × 10 ^ 3 m 3 /d) by the mid-1990s. JKX has interests in commercial gas and oil production through its shareholding in the joint venture company Poltava Petroleum Company and in oil production in Georgia through its shareholding in JKX (Ninotsminda) Ltd. By focusing its activities on the former Soviet Union JKX aims to achieve a competitive advantage and to be at the forefront of western oil and gas involvement in its operating … Even after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Central Asia kept many of its connections to Russia. 3. When did Socialist Revolution take place in Russia? It has a monopoly on gas pipelines in Russia. ‘Shock Therapy’ administered in the year 1900 not to lead the people into the promised utopia of mass consumption. The one party system had tight control over all institutions and was unaccountable to people. 3. A republic of Eastern Europe split into two independent countries peacefully. (b) Birth of CIS Ukraine (7) and Belarus (8). Or (d) There are still movements against the existing regimes in Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan and Georgia. 2004, soon followed by a sharp slowdown in the USSR due to of. Party was ruling over there and no other power could dominate ownership/control over. 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