endobj Waste. Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment in Decision Making: S.; Ham, R. Life Cycle Management of Municipal Solid Waste. The analysis here quantifies, the benefits of converting wood to paper in a low-carbon, economy and then using the postconsumer waste paper, as an energy source in a carbon-intensive economy. Waste Management, authors should consider whether the information is of potential use to solid waste researchers, practitioners and/or policymakers. The type of information that can typically be produced by an LCA is described. However, the, present study is unusual in taking explicit account of, differences in the background economic system between, the country where the primary paper fiber is produced, (Sweden in this case) and that where the paper is used, and the waste arises. Ntakamulenga, R. (1013 September 2012),The status of solid waste management in Tanzania, A paper presented during the Coastal East Africa Solid Waste workshop held in Flic en Flac, Mauritius Squires, C.O. Waste Management has updated its privacy policy effective June 1, 2020. In, each scenario, the paper waste management sites (land-, filling, recycling, combustion with energy recovery) are, located in Italy. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. In this study, it is used to assess the environmental performance of alternative solid waste management options that could be used in an area of the South of Italy suffering from a situation of weighty solid waste emergency. << is produced) and includes silviculture and harvesting, debarking, and chipping. In order to assess the environmental impacts linked to higher collection rates, a Life Cycle Assessment model was built that considers the reduced need for virgin materials as the system's loops are closed. Flow diagram of the RCF mill taken as reference in the study (HD ) high-density cleaning). The study confirmed the expected improvements, indicating quantitatively the lower environmental impact resulting from structural upgrade operations in a WtE plant. Also a framework of the systems evaluation The burdens related to the, transportation of virgin fiber, from Stockholm to Rot-. are allocated to individual components of the waste stream by process specific allocation methodologies. endobj Note that the key legend must be read from, Commercialized in Italy for the Preparation of Paper and Board Packaging, tion in Italy. /Tabs /S Key factors for the LCI results include what energy is replaced by incinerated waste paper, what material is replaced by recycled fibres, how the pulpwood savings are used, what external energy carrier is used for the recycling process, and what environmental burdens are associated with a change in the electricity demand. Waste Management Policies and Programmes In general, municipal solid waste management is handled by several government agencies from the federal to state and to local authorities [8]. Waste Act of 1990, which set a goal of diverting 25% of New Mexico’s municipal solid waste from landfills by 1995 and 50% by July 1, 2000. Recycled, fiber (RCF) processes can be divided into two main. As expected, the results showed better environmental scores after both the implementation of new procedures and the integration of operations. The environmental aspects of different waste management options for paper materials are the subject of an ongoing debate. ref 4). Perspectives on Energy and Material Recovery from Paper. Four, six, eight and ten cubic yard sizes serviced up to six days per week. The plant produces diesel and gasoline-range liquid fuels and is fully sustained by the energetic point of view. These latter are also responsible for the, bad environmental performance shown by the landfill-, ing scenario. The review by, associated with this type of mill (Figure 6). Although the four phases are conven-, tionally carried out sequentially, the overall process is, iterative in that earlier phases may be revisited in the, The purpose of applying LCA to waste management, is principally to ensure that the balance between the, local impacts of waste collection and treatment are offset, clearly and systematically against any benefits of. One manufacturing plant were surveyed for primary data. waste management streamline. 10 0 obj Practical implications – This paper may help public administrators in better understanding the suitability of using LCA when developing solid waste management strategies. /Contents 17 0 R /BS 26 0 R Additional unit processes included are electrical energy production, transportation, and ABSTRAKBahan-bahan alami yang semakin terbatas, mendorong penggunaan bahan-bahan seperti bahan limbah yang belum banyak dimanfaatkan untuk bahan bangunan atau pembuatan produk. Figure 4, summarizes the expanded systems describing the three, scenarios, showing the principal avoided burdens in, Primary inventory data describing the principal op-, erations in the foreground system were obtained from, on-site investigations obtained over a period of 12, materials handled in Italy. << Energy and fuel consumption were the crucial “hot spots” to focus on for efficiency and mitigation procedures at plant. The range, of primary data obtained ensured that the data used in, the LCA study was truly representative and as precise, and complete as possible and also gave an indication of, changes over time and of the range of variation between, further improved by taking into account the specific, characteristics of the packaging waste and of the process, waste handled within the foreground system (see Figure, 3), allowing for the dependence of the environmental, performance of the recycling system on the grade of, these possible differences and the validity of the as-, sumption that an “average” packaging product can be, assessment phase of LCA, the considerable body of, quantitative information contained in the inventory, table is simplified to show the contributions to a, monly the case that a few environmental impacts, dominate the results for a specific LCA comparison. For example, consumption of electrical energy and ancillary chemicals, was compiled from power bills and invoices. Results /Resources 16 0 R In this study, it is used to assess and compare the environmental performances of three alternative options (landfilling, recycling, and combustion with energy recovery) that could be used in Italy to manage paper and board packaging waste. This 2nd edition also provides a more user-friendly model (IWM-2) for waste managers. 11 0 obj The same quantity of virgin PET requires more than 77 MJ. 6 0 obj System boundaries and inventory of direct burdens associated with the production of testliner 1 and fluting. endobj The comparison was conducted by adopting 1 ton of MSW as the functional unit, and the net contribution from energy recovery to power generation was distinguished by defining consistent national grid electricity mixes for every year considered. The focus of waste management in South Africa is changing. Improper collection and disposal of solid waste that is a heterogeneous mixture of different materials like plastic, paper, metal, glass, earth, stone, soil, kitchen waste, market waste etc. << The remaining 40% of collected biogas is flared, to convert hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide and thus, The amount of leachate produced was estimated to, the integrity of the sealing of the landfill, and the, original water content of the buried waste. Final gas emissions are assumed to, be those achievable with proper operation of these best-, available technologies and are well within regulatory, limits. The plastics ban only leads to a small reduction of global plastic marine pollution and thus provides only a partial solution to the problem it intends to solve. WASTE MANAGEMENT . In this study, carbon in paper and carton board, and in the organic fraction of the process wastes are, treated as renewable and therefore not included in the, The recycling scenario b is associated with very large, emissions of greenhouse gases, primarily indirect bur-, dens from the background system providing the electri-. waste management strategies. The Ecoindicator99 2.09 impact assessment method was used to evaluate the contribution to midpoint and endpoint categories (e.g. /Rotate 0 The, tions and alternative systems are to be compared, was, defined as the management of sufficient postconsumer, waste, 1.17 t of paper and board packaging waste, collected as a single material stream (with a moisture, packaging (with a moisture content of 7%). /Type /Catalog My Bookings; Videos; Event Archive Quite simply, it is material that is not wanted by its producer. Goal, Scope and Background. /Tabs /S The waste paper materials used are better than those used to produce this book cover: cellulose = 45.80% = pentosan 25.90% and lignin = 22.60%. /Group 12 0 R The introduction, of electronic information systems has not displaced, graphics-quality paper for office documents or newsprint, for mass media, and board still competes successfully, with plastic and composite packaging materials. 2 0 obj This compari-, son has been the subject of much debate in the litera-, ture, usually focusing on the question “recycle or, the specific economic conditions in which the recycling, operations are embedded, most importantly on the, energy source which is displaced by energy recovery, from waste, what energy source is used for the recycling, operations, what material is replaced by the recycled, fibers, and whether water is scarce in the region where. The 2nd edition also includes updated chapters on waste generation, waste collection, central sorting, biological treatment, thermal treatment, landfill and materials recycling. Paperboard, manufacture from virgin fiber in Sweden (scenarios a, and c) and reprocessing of recycled fiber in Italy, (scenario b) dominate the comparison, while transporta-, tion is less significant and energy consumption in, Figure 10 shows the total net energy consumption or, saving in terms of the primary energy sources. The energy recovery section is, assumed to have a conversion efficiency of 27.7%, which, is high but achievable with a state-of-the-art plant. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli, Sustainability Assessment of a Single-Use Plastics Ban, The environmental benefits of improving packaging waste collection in Europe, Modeling of biomass supply system by combining computational methods - A review article, A review on textile wastewater production, characterization, and treatment technologies, The environmental analysis of asiago PDO cheese: a case study from farm gate-to-plant gate, VALUING RECYCLED WASTE PAPER BY THE DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF A BOOK COVER MODEL-YRR.18, Avaliação do ciclo de vida da coleta seletiva de papel e papelão no núcleo do Bessa, município de João Pessoa (PB), Brasil, Assessing the Environmental Sustainability of Food Packaging: An Extended Life Cycle Assessment including Packaging-Related Food Losses and Waste and Circularity Assessment, Identification of Key Sustainability Performance Indicators and Related Assessment Methods for the Carbon Fiber Recycling Sector, Analisi comparativa di percorsi per il recupero di materia e di energia da rifiuti urbani, Life Cycle Management of Municipal Solid Waste, The Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Integrated Solid Waste Management, The conceptual structure of life cycle impact assessment, Integrated Solid Waste Management – A Life Cycle Inventory, Integrated Solid Waste Management: A Life Cycle Inventory, The environmental performance of alternative solid waste management options: A life cycle assessment study, The Hitch Hiker's Guide to LCA: An orientation in life cycle assessment methodology and application, The Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Integrated Solid Waste Management: Part 2—Perspectives on Energy and Material Recovery from Paper, Life Cycle assessment of a plastic packaging recycling system, Life-cycle assessment as a decision-support too - The case of recycling versus incineration of paper, Performance indicators of a material recovery facility, Production of high quality diesel from plastic waste, Odour Impact Assessment - Valutazione dell'Impatto Olfattivo, Environmental impact assessment of a WtE plant after structural upgrade measures. It is /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] Analyses such as the one presented, here can be used to show how a country might modify, its energy economy to reduce dependence on fossil, carbon-based fuels. << Scenarios, System Boundaries, and Inventory, actually utilized in Italy by Comieco, the Italian con-, sortium for collection and recycling of paper and board, waste is burned with energy recovery as electrical power, Figure 3 shows the principal operations comprising, the foreground system and the principal direct burdens, and exchanges with the background system for the, recycling scenario. System boundaries and principal environmental burdens (paper recycling scenario). The calculations were made with the reasonable assumption that the final utilisation can use the virgin or the recycled polymer without any difference. Ecoinvent® v3.1 database was used for upstream processes. Although this conclusion runs counter, to common perceptions, it confirms results from a, number of previous studies (e.g. /Version /1.4 18, 2004, foreground, usually by supplying or receiving material. Life cycle assessment is an internationally standardized method that is able to account for upstream and downstream inputs and emissions over the complete supply chain providing a product or service. >> Segregation before, recovery is advocated to eliminate contaminants such, as plastics and “stickies” (e.g. The textile industry comprises a broad spectrum of units and generates large amount of wastewater containing several hazardous and toxic matters including heavy metals, pesticides, pigments and dyes (azo dyes), acids and soda, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The ap-, proach commonly used in applying LCA to waste. including reduction of demand for primary materials, virgin fiber in this case. These benefits are not offset by energy use, in primary paper production, because this takes place, in Sweden, where the energy system is much less carbon. constructed and is currently under demonstration. The first edition described the concept of Integrated Waste Management (IWM), and the use of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) to provide a way to assess the environmental and economic performance of solid waste systems. system varies according to the paper grade to be, produced and the type of waste paper used. Therefore, scenarios a and c, in which paper is not recycled, make, environmental impact categories for each of the main, recycled products for packaging paper and board were, quantified, to investigate differences between the eco-, performances of these products. Biogas, production was estimated to be 120 standard cubic, meters (at a reference temperature of 20 °C and 1 atm), the landfill gas are methane, typically 50, the balance being mainly carbon dioxide plus less than. The impacts are seen to differ little, even though. A camera was used to collect and record data on the prevailing state of waste management. The ReCiPe methodology was applied in the LCA presented in this study (Goedkoop et al., 2008). A state-of-the-art, landfill is considered, with high integrity bottom and, top membranes for leachate containment, leachate, treatment by reverse osmosis, high efficiency (55%) of, biogas collection, and 60% of the collected biogas burned, in a gas engine with an electrical conversion efficiency, of 35%. This chapter discusses the needs of society: less waste, and then an effective way to manage the inevitable waste still produced. Three different scenarios were considered: , a hypothetical scenario in which all the, /t of paper waste landfilled over a period of, System expansion method used in the study, with the indication of the functional output of primary interest and of avoided, details all the direct environmental burdens, Flow diagram of the RCF mill taken as reference in the study (HD. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a range of four years (e.g. I ntegrated Waste Management is one of the holistic approaches to environmental and resource management which are emerging from applying the concept of sustainable development. basis of the climate conditions of Southern Italy. reduced by recycling pulper residues to the process. Efforts to mitigate many of modeling’s challenges have involved phase-specific modeling and use of such methods as expressions or uncertainty analysis in place of a complex secondary model. Inputs and outputs at the plant, such as cheese ingredients, fuels, electricity, water, cleaning agents, packaging, waste, and associated transport were included. /Rotate 0 one of the most important factors in waste management. processes with exclusively mechanical cleaning, i.e.. such as testliner, corrugated medium, uncoated board, All the processes aim to separate paper fibers from. Free research papers on data mining, how to write an reflective essay introduction. /Parent 2 0 R The air dispersion modelling of odours is applied to provide the OU/m3 distribution in the area of interest. recovery of energy from waste paper in Italy is to be, preferred over recycling or landfilling. ucts with the specific waste used for its production. The methodology applied to evaluate the environmental performance of each alternative is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Net energy consumption related to each scenario with the indication of the contribution coming from the different stages. The conventional scenarios selected were a shredding system with iron Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Note that, since the average tropo-, spheric lifetime of all these gases exceeds the tropo-, spheric mixing time, it is not important where the, emissions occur; i.e., climate change is truly a global, impact category. Solid Waste Work Group – White Paper 6 The Thurston County Solid Waste program (in the Public Works Department) is responsible for the overall administration of the County’s solid waste system. /Contents 20 0 R >> In this study, it is used to assess. The textile industry is considered as main concerns by its environmental effects and hazardous wastes. /Group 21 0 R An extra 18 million tonnes of waste could be collected annually in Europe if best practice collection strategies were to be deployed, leading to a 13% reduction in greenhouse gas production associated with the packaging and packaging waste. tion refers to processes that increase the acidity of water, and soil systems. 7 0 obj Existing frameworks only provide general guidance on how to quantify the environmental sustainability of packaging. /Rotate 0 Although high collection performance is crucial for efficient resource use, improving source separation waste collection systems alone will not be enough to achieve recycling targets; material losses must be reduced throughout the value chain, i.e. The focus will be the Italian system for paper and paperboard recycling and that for all plastic packagings. /A 29 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] The real obstacles faced in many areas is its solid waste management, and successful administration of the strong waste created turns into an indispensable piece of a brilliant city. This aspect is even more complex: national policies for implementing greener and renewable energy sources would result in a lower impact of the national energy mix and, hence, in a lower net avoided burden from energy recovery. The framework is oriented towards the Product Environmental Footprint initiative and the Circular Economy Package of the European Union. aluate the flow rate of odour from the sources. Raw milk, other materials and energy flows were allocated using economic allocation strategy, while salt was attributed using plant specific information. O restante (89%) foi, em sua maioria, transportado e destinado ao Aterro Sanitário Metropolitano de João Pessoa. /Length 32 0 R Ciascuno scenario di gestione viene analizzato con riferimento sia ad un contesto urbano di grande scala che ad un contesto provinciale di minori dimensioni. White ledger paper RECYCLING NON-ACCEPTABLE ITEMS Aluminum foil Auto glass or ceramics Batteries Film canisters Light bulbs Painted wood Paper towels Plastic grocery bags (Please return to your supermarket) Plastic wrap Porcelain Styrofoam Treated wood Waste Management Inc. 2005 4/13/2005 Empty aerosol cans. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. As a result, the best alternative to the existing waste management system can be identified. 2. Essay on interactive whiteboard. has been performed at two levels; first, the emissions accounted for in the inventory stage have been arranged into impact categories to obtain an indicator for each category; and secondly, the weighting of environmental data to a single unit has been applied. terdam by ship and from there to central Italy by train, 1.17 t of paper waste and its transport to a landfill, as, paper from virgin fiber to provide the product made by, recycling in scenario b (Figure 4). that of the other scenarios. Scenarios a and c were represented, by the best available technologies, to represent a pos-, sible new investment in alternatives to scenario b. Net energy consumption related to each scenario, reported in terms of primary sources. IWM-2 is delivered on CD inside the book. Wenk, S. I. Olsen, D. W. Pennington, J. Potting, B. Steen, Eds. A, mobile grate furnace is the main component of the, combustion section. If fossil fuels are the alternative energy source, incinerated paper replaces fossil fuels, and emissions of CO 2 can be decreased. In this regard, the paper aims at the identification and combination of indicators allowing to assess the sustainability which is applicable to a carbon fiber recycling sector. Part 2. Abstract— Increase of population with their improved lifestyle and build up industrial is increase generation of solid waste in rural as well as urban in our country. describing the main structural upgrades carried out in the plant over the years 1996–2011. It is generally, considered the best environmental management tool that can be used to move from a generic, statement about the environmental benefit of a given recycling or disposal system to reach an, objective quantification of its environmental sustainability. The recycling scenario shows good results, in terms of very low emissions of dust into the atmo-, sphere and pollutants into water. This confirms. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan desain produk dari bahan ramah lingkungan dan analisa nilai produknya dari sisi loss-profit, sehingga dapat menjadi potensi bisnis yang menguntungkan bagi produsen buku di Indonesia sekaligus terlibat dalam upaya penyelamatan lingkungan.Kata kunci: Bahan Limbah Kertas; Nilai Produk; Desain Sampul Buku Model-YRR.18. 1 0 obj small component of the total greenhouse gas emissions. differ between different types of waste. It is also noteworthy that, for this impact indicator, the production of virgin, packaging is significant because these emissions are, nonrenewable and are therefore included in the com-, parison. Waste management is improving day by day with new research and thinking. remains the dominant material in paper and cardboard. All of this information A detailed user's guide is provided, to take the reader through the use of the IWM-2 model, step by step. This paper investigates whether banning single-use plastic items is an appropriate strategy to protect the environment. It provides a list of key environmental performance indicators and recommends certain calculation procedures for each indicator. burdens coming from additional functional outputs from each systems. Foreground and background systems for waste management (after Clift et al. Taiwo., “Waste management towards Solid Waste Management Rules (2016) provide a reasonable framework to address the multiple challenges of municipal solid waste management in India.2 They are a significant improvement over the Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules (2000), which was the first The energetic (and then environmental) saving is so remarkable, even for PE, being 40–49 MJ for the recycled polymer and about 80 MJ that for the virgin polyolefin. Assessment of a Plastic Packaging Recycling System. The performance is not so good for particulate emis-, sions, since the LCA balance takes into account emis-, sions from the production of chemicals necessary for, treatment of combustion flue gas and for paperboard, manufacture. Decision support tool to provide the OU/m3 distribution in the study in order to derive RECOMMENDATIONS and. Disadvantages of different waste management four, six, eight and ten cubic yard serviced. 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That single-use items are harmful to the existing waste management system can be categorized based on material, as.